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What are the methods of Sampling and Probability Sampling?

The process which involves the selection of the sample but does not involve its composition is called as the sampling method. There are different methods for carrying out the sampling process and these methods can be categorized as follows –

a. Probability Sampling – Studying different methods for the sampling is very important as its study helps in the improvement of the precision, accuracy, efficiency etc. of the different sample results, as these are very much dependent on the actual method that is being used.

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What is Sampling Frame? Also describe errors

Sampling Frame
A sampling frame can be defined as the list consisting of the units of the population. One very necessary and critical point to be kept in mind in case of the sampling frame is that it should be made up to date and also it should be free from the various errors of the omission and duplication of the sampling units. In many cases, it has been observed that the preparation of the sampling frame sometimes becomes a very critical practical problem.

A perfect frame is the one that is able to identify each element only once and these frames are very rarely available in the real life.
A sampling frame may consist of different types of defects and these defects can be classified on the following lines:-
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What is Sampling? What are its Characteristics, Advantages and Disadvantages?

Introduction and Meaning
In the Research Methodology, practical formulation of the research is very much important and so should be done very carefully with proper concentration and in the presence of a very good guidance.
But during the formulation of the research on the practical grounds, one tends to go through a large number of problems. These problems are generally related to the knowing of the features of the universe or the population on the basis of studying the characteristics of the specific part or some portion, generally called as the sample.

So now sampling can be defined as the method or the technique consisting of selection for the study of the so called part or the portion or the sample, with a view to draw conclusions or the solutions about the universe or the population.

According to Mildred Parton, “Sampling method is the process or the method of drawing a definite number of the individuals, cases or the observations from a particular universe, selecting part of a total group for investigation.”

Basic Principles of Sampling
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What is Data Collection and Measurement?

After the selection of a proper research design, a research problem is selected followed by a finalized plan of action. After all these steps, comes the stage involving the collection of the data this data is required during the various phases of study. So now we will study about the details of the sources of the data collection, importance of the data collection and also about the various methods that can be used for performing this purpose of the data collection.

Today’s world, which on a large scale is affected or governed by the marketing environment and a very very competitive scenario depends largely on the way the various decisions are taken for solving the various research problems. In such a scenario, research methodology plays a very vital and essential role. The results that are obtained are or can be considered useful or meaningful only if the information used is up to date i.e. the results should be credible in nature.

Very important point which should be kept in mind and should be given due importance is that the data that is collected should not just be a collection of words but should be very meaningful in nature and should act as an information for the researcher during the various research operations.

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How To Formulate Research Problem?

Formulating the research problem and hypothesis acts as a major step or phase in the research methodology. In research, the foremost step that comes into play is that of defining the research problem and it becomes almost a necessity to have the basic knowledge and understanding of most of its elements as this would help a lot in making a correct decision. The research problem can be said to be complete only if it is able to specify about the unit of analysis, time and space boundaries, features that are under study, specific environmental conditions that are present in addition to prerequisite of the research process.

Research Process
Research process is very commonly referred to as the planning process. One important point to be kept in mind here is to understand that the main aim of the research process is that of improving the knowledge of the human beings.

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What are the various types of research design?

Various types of research design are as follow:

1. Research design for exploratory or formulative studies
• In this type of design, a vague problem is selected and understood and is then followed by an exploratory research to find a new hypothesis and then carrying out conclusion research decisions to finally get new ideas.
• Aims at finding a new hypothesis.
• Individual surveys, referring to secondary sources of data etc. play an important role in such research designs.
• Reviewing related literature, following or surveying people having practical experience in the problem related field act as very important and most commonly used methods by an exploratory researcher.

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What are the steps in research design?

Following are the steps in research design:

1. The Problem – The first step involves the proper selection and then carefully defining the problem. By this researcher will be enabled to know about what he has to search, but it should be kept in mind that the problems selected should not be unmanageable in nature and also should not be based on the desires.

2. Objective of the study – The objective should be very clear in the mind of the researcher as this will lead to the clarity of the design and proper response from the respondents.

3. Nature of the study – The research design should be very much in relation with the nature of the study, which is to be carried out.

4. Data sources – The various sources of the data or the information should be very clearly stated by the researcher.

5. Techniques of data collection – For the collection of the required information, it sometimes becomes very necessary to use some especial techniques.

6. Social cultural context – Research design based on the social cultural concept is prepared in order to avoid the various study variations.

7. Geographical limit – This step becomes a necessity at this point of time as with the help of this step, research linked to the hypothesis applies only to certain number of social groups.

8. Basis of selection – Selecting a proper sample acts as a very important and critical step and this is done with the help of some mechanics like drawing a random stratified, deliberate, double cluster or quota sample etc.

What is Research Design? Write About Factors Affecting RD

Introduction
Designing of the research is done mainly to solve the problem of getting the various stages of the research under control. This control factor is very important for the researcher during any of the research operation. Preparation of the design for the research forms a very critical stage in the process of carrying out some research work or a research project.

Research Design in general terms can be referred to as the scheme of work to be done or performed by a researcher during the various stages of a research project.

With the help of the research design, one can very easily handle and operate research work as research design acts as a working plan, which is made by a researcher even before he starts working on his research project. By this, researcher gets a great help and guidance in achieving his aims and goals.

According to Russell Ackoff, research design is the process of making decisions before a situation arises in which the decision has to be carried out. It is actually a process of deliberate anticipation directed towards bringing an unexpected situation under control.

Russell Ackoff has in a great way explained about the research design in his book ‘Designs of Social Research’.

Meaning of research design
Like an architect prepares a blue print before he approves a construction – in the same way researcher makes or prepares a plan or a schedule of his own study before he starts his research work. This helps the researcher to save time and also save some of his crucial resources. This plan or blue print of study is referred to as the research design.

Research design is also called as the research strategy and the various steps or stages that a research design may include can be summarized as follows –
1. Research problem selection
2. Problem presentation
3. Hypothesis formulation
4. Conceptual clarity
5. Methodology
6. Literature survey
7. Bibliography
8. Collection of the data
9. Hypothesis testing
10. Interpretation of the result
11. Report writing

This specific presentation of the various steps in the process of research was given by Cook Jahoda.

Factors affecting research design
1. Availability of scientific information
2. Availability of sufficient data
3. Time availability
4. Proper exposure to the data source
5. Availability of the money
6. Manpower availability
7. Magnitude of the management problem
8. Degree of Top management’ s support
9. Ability, knowledge, skill, technical understanding and technical background of the researcher
10. Controllable variables
11. Un – controllable variables
12. Internal variables
13. External variables

Advantages of research design
1. Consumes less time.
2. Ensures project time schedule.
3. Helps researcher to prepare himself to carry out research in a proper and a systematic way.
4. Better documentation of the various activities while the project work is going on.
5. Helps in proper planning of the resources and their procurement in right time.
6. Provides satisfaction and confidence, accompanied with a sense of success from the beginning of the work of the research project.

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