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What are the methods of Sampling and Probability Sampling?

The process which involves the selection of the sample but does not involve its composition is called as the sampling method. There are different methods for carrying out the sampling process and these methods can be categorized as follows –

a. Probability Sampling – Studying different methods for the sampling is very important as its study helps in the improvement of the precision, accuracy, efficiency etc. of the different sample results, as these are very much dependent on the actual method that is being used.

This method of sampling, as the name suggests, depends on the theory of the probability. The selection of the units from a population is done depending on the probabilities that are known. Probability sampling is a process of sample selection in which the elements are chosen by chance methods through tables of the random numbers.

The probability sampling method is also referred to as the random sampling method and is mainly used in the cases involving significant decisions, not giving much importance to the budget and the time.

Probability sampling methods are of the following types –

1. Simple Random Sampling –
• Is free from the personal bias.
• Sample is drawn in such a way that the every member of the population has an equal chance of being included in the sample.
• Sample obtained is referred to as the Random Sample.
• Very suitable, if the population is small or if the list of the elements in the population can be made.
• Very useful in the cases involving a homogeneous population.
• Is further of two types – simple random sampling with replacement and the other one is the simple random sampling without replacement.
• If the units of a sample are drawn one by one from the population in such a way that after every drawing the selected unit is returned to the population then this is called as the simple random sampling with replacement.
• And if the units of a sample are drawn one by one from the population in such a way that after every drawing the selected unit is not returned to the population then this is called as the simple random sampling without replacement.
Random sampling can be performed with the help of certain specific methods and some of these methods are –

A. Lottery method –
• A lottery is drawn by writing a number or the names of various units and then putting them in a container.
• They are completely mixed and then certain numbers are picked up from the container.
• Those picked are taken up for the sampling.

B. Tippet’s Numbers method –
• Was evolved by L.H.C Tippet, name of this method comes from his name.
• He made a list of 10, 4000 four digit numbers written at random on each page.
• From these numbers, samples are drawn at random.
• Is a very reliable and a dependable method.

C. Selection from Sequential List –
• Names are arranged serially in a specific pattern.
• Pattern may be alphabetical, geographical or it may be serial in nature.
• Then from the list, any number may be taken up.
• Selection can be started from anywhere.

D. Grid System –
• Involves drawing of the map of the entire area.
• Then screen with the squares placed on the map of the entire area is drawn.
• After this the screen with the squares placed upon the map and some of the squares are selected at random.
• Then the screen is placed upon the map and the area falling in the selected squares is taken as the sample.

2. Stratified random sampling – This type of probability sampling method is one of the most commonly used methods and involves the division of the whole population into a number of strata.

These strata are very much exclusive and also very exhaustive in the nature. From each of these strata, a simple random sample is drawn, by this; the number of the samples drawn from each of the sample becomes proportional to their respective strata size. When the population is heterogeneous in nature, this type of sampling plays a very critical role. The stratification in this method is performed in such an elegant way that the variance between the strata is high and data within each stratum is very small.

Types of Stratified Random Sampling –
A. Disproportionate Stratified Random Sampling – In this type of sampling, equal number of the units are drawn from each stratum, not depending on the size of the strata.

B. Proportionate Stratified Random Sampling – in this type of sampling, the number of units in each stratum is proportionate to its number in the universe.

3. Systematic random sampling – This method involves the formation of a sample in a very systematic manner, involves the arrangement of the units in the population in a serial manner. A major point to be kept in mind here is that the population should be finite in nature and also should be defined very clearly.
After this, from the first K units, one unit is selected at random, this unit and also every K th unit onwards from the serially listed populations forms a systematic sample. This method is very simple and convenient in use as it saves a lot of time.

4. Multi Stage sampling – As the name suggests, this method takes place in a number of stages population consists of first stage units and each of these first stage units consist of a number of second stage units. These second stage units further consist of the third stage units and this is followed till the ultimate unit is achieved.

One of the major positive points of such a sampling method is that the frame of the second stage units is needed only for the selected first stage units. In this sampling procedure, sample from the first stage units is chosen with the help of any method that is suitable or correct. After this the sample of the second stage is chosen by suitable method from first stage units and then this procedure is followed until the ultimate units are reached.

5. Cluster Sampling – This type of method is very useful in lowering the filed cost as this method is a very practical and easily opera table method. Here the population is divided into a number of groups and these groups are referred to as the clusters and further these clusters are referred to as the primary sampling units. This method involves first of all the identification of the cluster, according to which clusters may be units like districts, talukas, city blocks, schools etc. Clusters should be homogeneous in the internal characteristics.Then further in this method, determination of the number of the stages is to be done.

It may involve single stage or two stage or multi stage sampling.

b. Non Probability Sampling – This type of method does not provide any type of ground for estimating the probability for each item in the population process to be included in the sample. Here sampling error is not measurable and such methods are used widely to contact the respondents in this case as the primary objective involves the probing for the possible range of the answers.

Non Probability Sampling methods are mainly classified as –
1. Convenience sampling –
• Selection of the samples is done according to the convenience of the researcher.
• Representatives of the samples cannot be known.
• So as a result of this, results that are received are biased in nature.
• Not suitable for use in the descriptive and the casual studies.
• Suitable for the exploratory studies.
• Very useful in testing of the questionnaire.

2. Judgment Sampling –
• Also called as the Purposive sampling.
• Firstly, a sample is drawn from the population, which a researcher thinks to be a representative of the population.
• All the members do not get the chance to get selected in the sample.

3. Quota Sampling –

• Form of the Stratified sampling.
• Number to be selected from each stratum is referred to as the Quota.
• Quota is selected in advance.
• Used in the marketing research studies.
• Sample is selected on the basis of parameters like the age, sex, income etc.
• Field workers mainly choose the sample and are assigned quotas.

What is Sampling Frame? Also describe errors

Sampling Frame
A sampling frame can be defined as the list consisting of the units of the population. One very necessary and critical point to be kept in mind in case of the sampling frame is that it should be made up to date and also it should be free from the various errors of the omission and duplication of the sampling units. In many cases, it has been observed that the preparation of the sampling frame sometimes becomes a very critical practical problem.

A perfect frame is the one that is able to identify each element only once and these frames are very rarely available in the real life.
A sampling frame may consist of different types of defects and these defects can be classified on the following lines:-
(a) Incomplete frame –
• Some legitimate sampling units of the population are omitted.

(b) Inaccurate frame –
• Some of the sampling units of the population are inaccurately listed.
• Or sometimes such units are involved which actually are not existing.

(c) Inadequate frame –
• Does not include all the units of the population by its structure.

Types of Errors
1. Sampling errors –
• Defined as the difference between the results got from the samples and those that would have been obtained from the complete enumeration of the population.
• Mainly arise due to the random factors.
• Occur due to the sample surveys.
• Have no error in the survey technique.
• Increase by reducing the size of the sample.
• Such an error arises when the sample represents only the part of the population.

2. Non Sampling errors –
• Occur in the survey method as well as the sample survey.
• Arise mainly due to the presence of bias.
• Also arise due to the mistakes committed by an individual, machine etc.
• Such errors increase with the increasing size of the sample.

What is Sampling? What are its Characteristics, Advantages and Disadvantages?

Introduction and Meaning
In the Research Methodology, practical formulation of the research is very much important and so should be done very carefully with proper concentration and in the presence of a very good guidance.
But during the formulation of the research on the practical grounds, one tends to go through a large number of problems. These problems are generally related to the knowing of the features of the universe or the population on the basis of studying the characteristics of the specific part or some portion, generally called as the sample.

So now sampling can be defined as the method or the technique consisting of selection for the study of the so called part or the portion or the sample, with a view to draw conclusions or the solutions about the universe or the population.

According to Mildred Parton, “Sampling method is the process or the method of drawing a definite number of the individuals, cases or the observations from a particular universe, selecting part of a total group for investigation.”

Basic Principles of Sampling
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What is Data Collection and Measurement?

After the selection of a proper research design, a research problem is selected followed by a finalized plan of action. After all these steps, comes the stage involving the collection of the data this data is required during the various phases of study. So now we will study about the details of the sources of the data collection, importance of the data collection and also about the various methods that can be used for performing this purpose of the data collection.

Today’s world, which on a large scale is affected or governed by the marketing environment and a very very competitive scenario depends largely on the way the various decisions are taken for solving the various research problems. In such a scenario, research methodology plays a very vital and essential role. The results that are obtained are or can be considered useful or meaningful only if the information used is up to date i.e. the results should be credible in nature.

Very important point which should be kept in mind and should be given due importance is that the data that is collected should not just be a collection of words but should be very meaningful in nature and should act as an information for the researcher during the various research operations.

Meaning of Data
Data can be defined as a collection of facts, figures or any other related material, which has the ability to serve as the information for the basic study and the analysis. It must be kept in mind that data can be either old in nature or it may be the current one.

For getting answers to any of the queries that are made data related to the questions or the queries is very much needed. Data acts as the back bone for the analysis, so it can be said that no question can be answered without the data.

Analyzation of the data often leads to some of the inferences which are very commonly called as the information. The inference which is based on the guess work or on the opinions can never ever make a place in the research but the factors which play a critical role in the research generally include accuracy, suitability, reliability etc.

Sources of Data
The basic data has a direct affect on the answers to the various questions and hence the source of the data is very much important as it provides the necessary information. The various sources of the data can be summarized as follows –

1. Primary sources – These types of the sources refer to the first hand sources or the original sources at the hands of a researcher, which is not collected in the past. Collection of the primary data can be done with the help of the principle sources of the observation and also the surveys. Primary data in very simple and general language can be defined as the first hand information relating to any type of the research that has been gathered or collected by the researcher or by any of his assistant or an agent.

This type of the data helps in the original investigations and observations, which automatically further leads to the achievement of the various useful and meaningful results. A very important point to be kept in mind about these types of results obtained, which are based on the primary data are bound to be empirical in nature and also play a very critical and defining role in the research methodology.

If the primary data that has been collected and compiled is not bias in the nature acts as a tool of great utility value as then this type of the data becomes very much reliable, accurate and dependable in nature that ultimately helps a great deal in carrying out the various specified investigations.

Once this primary data is used the original features or the characteristics of these data diminish resulting in the formation of the secondary data.

Hence it can be said that the data which acts as primary data at one point of time is bound to become secondary data at some stage or time in the future.

Methods of the collection of the primary data can be categorized as –

a. Observation – In general terms observation can be defined as the process involving the collection of the data by either viewing or listening or both. The best method in this category is to directly and personally observe something to get meaningful data this method is also called as the Direct Personal Observation. In this type of the observation the situation is observed by the researcher in order to collect data relevant to the research. If the observation is without any bias the data that is collected with the help of this type of method acts as the most reliable information.

Observation is also a very cheap method and then also is very effective in its nature of working this method is a very old one data collected in the past about the human race, the environment etc used this method only.

But a major drawback of this type of method is that with the help of observation one is not able to quantify the data and also one cannot reach to some concrete solutions on the basis of the data collected by this method. So it can be said that observation method should generally be used for carrying out hypothesis testing.

b. Questionnaire and Schedule – With the help of this type of method, data is collected by getting questionnaires completed by the various respondents. This method of questionnaire and schedule is generally employed in order to collect the primary data in a very systematic manner. A questionnaire can be defined as a schedule having a number of coherent questions related to the topic which is being studied. A questionnaire acts as a formulated series of the questions and helps in the collection of the information directly by the investigator himself. A schedule can be defined as the collection of the details in a tabulated form and can be sometimes identical to the questionnaire.

Types of Questionnaire –

1. Structured questionnaire –
• Consists of definite, concrete and pre ordinate questions.
• Has some additional questions as well, limited to those necessary for the classification of the inadequate answers.
• Is segmented in nature.
• Provides information under given titles and the sub titles.
• Helps in getting accurate response and apt information.
• Saves time and also the energy.

2. Non Structured questionnaire –
• Is very simple in nature.
• Is non segmented.
• Has no sub division.
• Can be used for very simple types of studies.

3. Codified questionnaire –
• Expected answers are given in the code numbers.
• Very easy for carrying out the processing.
• Very suitable and also very convenient for the informant.

4. Un Codified questionnaire –
• Very simple in nature.
• Consist of no codification.
• Codification may be sometimes made at the time of compilation but only if it is necessary.

c. Experimentation – Forms a very commonly used and very popular ingredient of the research process, being used in the physical sciences for a long time. An experiment is the process of studying the various aspects of the relationships between the independent and the dependent variables in a controlled situation. It acts as a test or a trial method in order to test a hypothesis in a laboratory.

d. Stimulation – Stimulation can be defined as the technique used for performing the various sampling experiments on the model of the systems. According to Abelson, stimulation is “the exercise of a flexible imitation of processes and outcomes for the purpose of clearing or explaining the underlying mechanisms involved.”

Stimulation is the form of observational method acting as the theoretical model of the elements, relations and the processes.
This method is very widely used in the war strategies and the tact business problems etc.. It is also used in the various economical problems, political problems, and behavioral problems and also in the social problems.

e. Interview method – This method acts as a very important and a critical way to collect data involving a very planned and a very systematic conversation that takes place between the interviewer/ investigator and the respondent. By this one is able to get very suitable information related to a specific research problem.
By this method of data collection one can get a very suitable range of data having both demographic as well as the social characteristics or any one of them.

In today’s world, most people like to talk rather than to write so this method is very much preferred compared to other methods of the data collection. By this method one can get a very deep and in depth view of the problem, hence helps in probing into the problem efficiently.

f. Projective Techniques – The various direct methods are generally based on some assumptions, for e.g. the direct methods like the personal interview, telephone interview etc pre suppose about a person that he is willing to provide some important information about his own behavior, beliefs, feelings etc.. But this is not the case in all the aspects.
There may be some persons who may not give any type of information about themselves or may not give their opinion in a true sense.
In such cases these techniques play a very vital role as these are not dependent on the subject’s self insight.

2. Secondary sources – Data can be referred to be secondary in nature if the information provided by the data is not related to the purpose of the research project work i.e. secondary data accounts to the information for the various other purposes and not the purpose involved in the given research work. Secondary data is readily available and the researcher himself has no control over the shape of the data as it is given shape by the others. This type of data is based on the second – hand information i.e. the data that has been collected, compiled and presented in the past by some other company or group and is now being used in the various investigation procedures, this type of data is referred to as the secondary data.

Methods of the collection of the secondary data can be categorized as

a. Internal –
• Involves data that a company is already having.
• This type of data is collected by the company in routine.
• This data is used by the company itself.
• Data collected by such method is always in tune and regard with the research operation’s purpose.

b. External –
• Involves data collected by the individuals.
• Data collected acts as a very useful and a meaningful tool for the researcher in carrying out the various research operations.
• Further are of two types – personal sources and the public sources.

i. Personal Sources – These type of sources for the collection of the secondary data generally involve –
(a) Autobiographies
(b) Diaries
(c) Letters
(d) Memoirs

ii. Public Sources – These are further of two types –
A. Unpublished – Due to various reasons sometimes the data is not at all published and some examples of such sources can be reports of inquiry commissions, report of special inquiry etc.
B. Published – Such sources include the following –
(a) Books
(b) Journals
(c) Newspapers
(d) Reports of the government departments
(e) Reports of the autonomous institutes

Advantages of the secondary data
1. Collection of such data is very economical.
2. Is available quickly.
3. Saves a lot of time.
4. Helps in verifying the primary data.
5. Leads to widening of the data base.

Disadvantages of the secondary data
1. There may be some times when this data is not able to provide the necessary information.
2. Data may not be accurate.
3. The data may not be latest.
4. Data may not be reliable in nature.
5. Has a limited utility.
6. Such data based on the unpublished sources may not be obtained by everyone.

How To Formulate Research Problem?

Formulating the research problem and hypothesis acts as a major step or phase in the research methodology. In research, the foremost step that comes into play is that of defining the research problem and it becomes almost a necessity to have the basic knowledge and understanding of most of its elements as this would help a lot in making a correct decision. The research problem can be said to be complete only if it is able to specify about the unit of analysis, time and space boundaries, features that are under study, specific environmental conditions that are present in addition to prerequisite of the research process.

Research Process
Research process is very commonly referred to as the planning process. One important point to be kept in mind here is to understand that the main aim of the research process is that of improving the knowledge of the human beings.

The research process consists of the following stages –
1. The Primary stage :– This stage includes –
a. Observation – The first step in the research process is that of the observation, research work starts with the observation which can be either unaided visual observation or guided and controlled observation.It can be said that an observation leads to research, the results obtained from research result in final observations which can play a crucial part in carrying out further research. Deliberate and guided observations also play an important part in this primary stage. This method is very simple and helps a great deal in framing of the hypothesis as it is very accurate in nature but it also has some major limitations like some of the occurrences may not be open to the observation and the occurrences which may be open for observation may not be studied conveniently.

b. Interest – As studied in the above paragraph, research starts with the observation and it leads to a curiosity to learn and gain more and more about what has been observed. Hence it can be said that observation results in the creation of an interest in the mind of the researcher.The interest can be either academic in nature or it may be a policy making interest. It may be a self interest or a group interest. Group interest is also referred to as the social interest.

c. Crystallization – It can be defined as the process involving the designing of the definite form of research to be used in the study of the subject matter that has been observed. During this stage, the research project gets a concrete shape and structure.

d. Formulating a research problem – A research problem can belong to one of the following two categories – it can belong to the category in which there can be relationships between various variables or it may belong to the other category, which is based on nature. In the beginning, it is important for a researcher to find out the general interest or the subject matter, which he wants to study. By this the researcher will be able to state a problem more broadly and also in a much generalized form then the ambiguities linked to the problem can be referred and understood. This really supports in the formulation of a problem of a research. Although this process is not that simple and requires many fruitful discussions in order to achieve a proper conclusion or a decision.

e. Primary Synopsis – Before starting with the actual study work, it is very necessary for a researcher to prepare a summary or a plan about the activities he has to perform in connection with research operation. This will help him a lot to get a definite idea or an understanding of what would be written in the final report.

f. Conceptual Clarity – It is very much important for a researcher to have in depth knowledge and understanding of the subject or the topic he has to study as it helps a lot in achieving one’s goal and objectives in a much easier and also a comparatively much simpler way.

g. Documentation – The documents help in providing important information to a researcher, document is something in writing it can be a record, files or diaries etc. may be published or unpublished in nature. Documents can be extracted and can be used in the research work. Various documents can be classified as –

a. Personal documents –
• Written by or on behalf of individuals.
• May include autobiographies, biographies, diaries, memories, letters, observations and inscriptions.
• Can be used in research activities.

b. Company documents –
• Most important type of documents compared to other document types.
• Play an essential role in management research.
• May include balance sheets, files, records, policy statements, resolutions, performance records etc.

c. Consultants’ reports and published materials –
• Include professional consultants’ reports, commodity boards’ records, chambers of commerce, trade union documents etc.

d. Public documents –
• Can be published or unpublished in nature.
• Consist of government records, finance commission records, especial enquiry commission records, company law board reports, population census reports etc.
• Can be useful only if they are reliable.

h. Literature Survey – Having complete knowledge about the literature is almost a necessity for a researcher to be successful in his research operation. With the help of literature survey, one is helped in having correct concepts and also the right theories.

2. Secondary stage: – This stage of the research consists of all the features that are actually required to run a research project. This stage includes the following –

a. Research project planning: – Involves selection of the future courses of action for conducting and directing a research project. A research project plan gives a rational approach to research by which one is able to decide in advance about what to do, how to do, when to do, where to do and who is to do a particular task in a specific activity.

b. Research Project formulation: – After the planning of the project has been done the researcher follows this with a practical approach in order to carry out the project. This step of the secondary stage involves the systematic setting forth of the total research project, with an aim of conducting a systematic study.

c. Data collection: – This step involves the in depth meaning for the concepts that are to be investigated and looks forward to data analysis, data requirement etc… Sources of understatement or overstatement should be avoided and the data should be free from any type of error. The data collection planning should be done or implemented in a very careful manner, with the help of specialist researchers. The data should be good and meaningful in nature should not only be a collection of words but should provide meaningful information.

d. Classification and tabulation – Classification can be defined as the arrangement of the data into groups and classes depending on the resemblance and the similarities. By classification, the data can be condensed in a very elegant way by which the various important features can be easily noticed i.e. one can easily highlight the various salient features of the data at a glance. Tabulation of the data can be defined as the orderly arrangement of the data in columns and the rows this step also helps a great deal in the condensation of the data and also in the analysation of the relations, trends etc.

e. Data Analysis – In this step, the collected data is arranged according to some pattern or a particular format and this analysation of the data is done mainly to provide the data with a meaning. It is actually the computing of the some of the measures supported by the search for the relationship patterns, existing among the group of the data.

f. Testing of a hypothesis: – This step of testing acts as the back bone of the data analysis. Various tests like “t” test, “z” test. Chi square test are used by the statisticians for the testing of the hypothesis.

g. Interpretation of results: – It is very important that the results are interpreted into action recommendations and the results should be able to refer to a decision i.e. should help in drawing a conclusion.

3. Final Stage :– This stage involves –
a. Conclusions and recommendations – This act as the crux of the research project work. Recommendations are based on the conclusions obtained and further these conclusions are based on the interpretation of the results of data analysis. But a major point to be kept in mind here is that all these conclusions and the recommendations should be linked to the research hypothesis stated.

b. Report Writing – For the researcher as well as the reader, report writing is very crucial as it acts as the best way for communication between the two. Report written must be very simple in nature with easy language, high clarity. Report writing cannot be done by everyone and requires an especial skilled person for this purpose.

What are the various types of research design?

Various types of research design are as follow:

1. Research design for exploratory or formulative studies
• In this type of design, a vague problem is selected and understood and is then followed by an exploratory research to find a new hypothesis and then carrying out conclusion research decisions to finally get new ideas.
• Aims at finding a new hypothesis.
• Individual surveys, referring to secondary sources of data etc. play an important role in such research designs.
• Reviewing related literature, following or surveying people having practical experience in the problem related field act as very important and most commonly used methods by an exploratory researcher.

2. Research design for conclusive studies
Also referred to as the research design for the descriptive studies and is further divided as follows –

a. Case Study method –
• Finds extensive use in commerce and industry.
• Very respectable method of teaching and research in management.
• Helps greatly in knowing the causes and the results of the incident of the phenomenon.

b. Statistical method –
• Also trying to find its place in commerce and industry.
• Act as method of correlation and regressions, analysis, chi square etc.
• Has been made very rigorous and sophisticated by coming up of the computers.

3. Research design for experimental studies –
• Explains the structure of an experiment.
• Involve plans for the testing of the causal hypothesis.
• Decides the number of observations to be taken and also the order in which experiments are to be carried out.
• Which randomization method to be used.
• Which mathematical model to be used for explaining the experiment.

This research design can be further categorized into the following –
1. Informal experimental design –
• After only design.
• After only with control design.
• Before and after without control design.
• Before and after with control design.

2. Formal experimental design –
• Completely randomized design.
• Randomized block design.
• Latin square design.
• Factorial design.

What are the steps in research design?

Following are the steps in research design:

1. The Problem – The first step involves the proper selection and then carefully defining the problem. By this researcher will be enabled to know about what he has to search, but it should be kept in mind that the problems selected should not be unmanageable in nature and also should not be based on the desires.

2. Objective of the study – The objective should be very clear in the mind of the researcher as this will lead to the clarity of the design and proper response from the respondents.

3. Nature of the study – The research design should be very much in relation with the nature of the study, which is to be carried out.

4. Data sources – The various sources of the data or the information should be very clearly stated by the researcher.

5. Techniques of data collection – For the collection of the required information, it sometimes becomes very necessary to use some especial techniques.

6. Social cultural context – Research design based on the social cultural concept is prepared in order to avoid the various study variations.

7. Geographical limit – This step becomes a necessity at this point of time as with the help of this step, research linked to the hypothesis applies only to certain number of social groups.

8. Basis of selection – Selecting a proper sample acts as a very important and critical step and this is done with the help of some mechanics like drawing a random stratified, deliberate, double cluster or quota sample etc.

What is Research Design? Write About Factors Affecting RD

Designing of the research is done mainly to solve the problem of getting the various stages of the research under control. This control factor is very important for the researcher during any of the research operation. Preparation of the design for the research forms a very critical stage in the process of carrying out some research work or a research project.

Research Design in general terms can be referred to as the scheme of work to be done or performed by a researcher during the various stages of a research project.

With the help of the research design, one can very easily handle and operate research work as research design acts as a working plan, which is made by a researcher even before he starts working on his research project. By this, researcher gets a great help and guidance in achieving his aims and goals.

According to Russell Ackoff, research design is the process of making decisions before a situation arises in which the decision has to be carried out. It is actually a process of deliberate anticipation directed towards bringing an unexpected situation under control.

Russell Ackoff has in a great way explained about the research design in his book ‘Designs of Social Research’.

Meaning of research design
Like an architect prepares a blue print before he approves a construction – in the same way researcher makes or prepares a plan or a schedule of his own study before he starts his research work. This helps the researcher to save time and also save some of his crucial resources. This plan or blue print of study is referred to as the research design.

Research design is also called as the research strategy and the various steps or stages that a research design may include can be summarized as follows –
1. Research problem selection
2. Problem presentation
3. Hypothesis formulation
4. Conceptual clarity
5. Methodology
6. Literature survey
7. Bibliography
8. Collection of the data
9. Hypothesis testing
10. Interpretation of the result
11. Report writing

This specific presentation of the various steps in the process of research was given by Cook Jahoda.

Factors affecting research design
1. Availability of scientific information
2. Availability of sufficient data
3. Time availability
4. Proper exposure to the data source
5. Availability of the money
6. Manpower availability
7. Magnitude of the management problem
8. Degree of Top management’ s support
9. Ability, knowledge, skill, technical understanding and technical background of the researcher
10. Controllable variables
11. Un – controllable variables
12. Internal variables
13. External variables

Advantages of research design
1. Consumes less time.
2. Ensures project time schedule.
3. Helps researcher to prepare himself to carry out research in a proper and a systematic way.
4. Better documentation of the various activities while the project work is going on.
5. Helps in proper planning of the resources and their procurement in right time.
6. Provides satisfaction and confidence, accompanied with a sense of success from the beginning of the work of the research project.

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