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What are the types of Questionnaire?

Types of questionnaire
1. Structured questionnaire

a) Have definite and concrete questions.
b) Is prepared well in advance.
c) Initiates a formal inquiry.
d) Supplements and checks the data, previously accumulated.
e) Used in studies of the economics and the social problems, studies of the administrative policies and changes etc.

2. Unstructured questionnaire
a) Used at the time of the interview.
b) Acts as the guide for the interviewer.
c) Is very flexible in working.
d) Used in studies related to the group of families or those relating to the personal experiences, beliefs etc.

A questionnaire can also be divided as the follows depending on the nature of the questions therein
1. Open ended questionnaire
a) Respondent is free to express his views and the ideas.
b) Used in making intensive studies of the limited number of the cases.
c) Merely an issue is raised by such a questionnaire.
d) Do not provide any structure for the respondent’s reply.
e) The questions and their orders are pre – determined in the nature.

2. Close ended questionnaire
a) Responses are limited to the stated alternatives.
b) One of the alternatives is simply YES or NO.
c) Respondent cannot express his own judgment.

3. Mixed questionnaire
a) Questions are both close and open ended.
b) Used in field of social research.

4. Pictorial questionnaire
a) Used very rarely.
b) Pictures are used to promote the interest in answering the questions.
c) Used in studies related to the social attitudes and the pre – judices in the children.

Write a note on The Questionnaire Method followed in Research Methodology

Introduction and the meaning
This method acts as a great source or a facility for the collection of the data from the diverse and scattered group of people. A questionnaire consists of a variety of the questions printed or typed in a definite order on a form – which are mailed further to the respondents. The respondent has to answer these questions on his own.

The main function or the objective of the questionnaire is to collect data from the respondents, who are generally scattered in a vast diverse area.

This method also helps in the collection of reliable and dependable data.

According to Bogardus, “a questionnaire is a list of the questions sent to a number of persons to answer. It secures the standardized results that can be tabulated and also treated statistically.”

Advantages of the Questionnaire
1. Requires less skill.
2. Less training is needed.
3. Cheaper in nature.
4. Also impersonal in nature.
5. Pressure is less.
6. Anonymity.

Disadvantages of the Questionnaire
1. Returns are low if compared to the other methods used for the collection of the data.
2. Response is also less.
3. Less flexible in working.
4. Occurrence of errors.
5. Less reliable.
6. Sometimes answers obtained can be wrong.
7. Not efficient in the depth – problems.

What are the steps involved in carrying out an experiment?

Steps involved in carrying out an experiment are:-

1. Choice of variable –
a) Investigative questions can be prepared by the researcher depending on the nature of the problem.
b) Hypothesis should be operationalised.
c) Variables are to be selected by the researcher.
d) Number of the variables to be tested is to be decided.

2. Levels of treatment –
a) Refer to the differences or the distinctions made by the researcher between the different aspects of the treatment conditions.
b) Levels assigned to an independent variable should be based on the simplicity.

3. Experimental environment –
a) Environmental control constantly holds the physical environment of the experiment.
b) The researcher must have the complete knowledge about the various extraneous variables.
c) These extraneous variables can exist in the factors like age, gender, race etc.
d) Their presence can have a great affect on the dependent variables.

4. Choice of the Experimental Design –
a) Are very unique in nature compared to the other research designs.
b) Provide positional as well as the statistical plans.
c) Helps in designating the relationship between the experimental treatments and the experimenter’s observations.
d) Helps in providing the strength to the generalization of the results beyond the experimental settings.

5. Subjects allocation –
a) The selected subjects should represent the population to which the researcher has to generalize.
b) Firstly a sample frame is made and then the subjects for the experiment to the groups are assigned – Randomization method is used for this purpose.
c) Experimental subjects act as a self – selecting sample as mostly the size of the sampling frame is small.

6. Tests, Pilot tests –
a) Pilot testing reveals the errors in the design.
b) Pre – testing helps in carrying out the refinement before the final test.
c) Scripts can be revised during this step.

7. Analysis –
a) By carrying proper and accurate planning and the pre – testing, the data needed for the experiment can be given an order and structure.
b) These structures are usually very uncommon to the surveys.
c) The various options used by the researchers to measure and instrument are observational techniques, coding schemes, paper and pencil teats, self – report instruments with the open or the closed questions etc.

Explain The Experimental Method?

Definition and Meaning
There are different types of research – the two major types of the research that need to be identified for getting the basic understanding of the experimental method are the exploratory research and the conclusive research.

Experiment is actually the study consisting of the intervention by the researchers beyond that requires for the measurements.

Generally these types of the interventions are very helpful in carrying out the manipulation of the various variables that ultimately help in setting up and observing the effects caused to the subjects that are being studied.

The explanatory variable is manipulated by the researcher and then the researcher observes whether the hypothesized dependent variable is affected by the intervention or not.

The experiment possesses a statement of the problem that is to be solved. One basic point to be kept in mind is that during the designing of the experiment, the design should be such that all the points of view to establish what the experiment is intended to do must be brought out.

By experimentation one is able to get very accurate information and experiments are carried out at basically at the two following scales –
1. Laboratory Scale –
a) Experiments are carried out in an artificial environment.
b) Unwanted effects of the extraneous variables can be minimized.
c) Natural nature of the responses of the subjects cannot be estimated.
d) High level of the internal validity is also available.
e) But sometimes these experiments can become invalid in nature.

2. Field scale –
a) Carried out in the real – world environment.
b) Offers very high level of the external validity.
c) But the internal validity suffers.
d) Are very costly compared to the experiments that are carried out in the laboratory.
e) Are very time – consuming.
f) Very complicated in the working nature.

What are the Objectives of Experiment?
1. Measurement of the outcome or the dependent variable.
2. Determining the functional form that is responsible for the linkage of some of the criterion variable to a set of the input variables.
3. Identifying the relevant variables.
4. Establishing the causal relationships.
5. Formulating the hypothesis.
6. Defining the various variables.

What are the Constituents of an Experiment?
1. Experiment –
(a) Making a statement that is very clear and also is easy to understand.
(b) Selecting the dependent variable or the response factor.
(c) Deciding or selecting those factors in which the variation is to be made.
(d) Selecting the different levels of these factors.

2. Designs –
(a) The number of the observations to be taken is to be decided.
(b) The order in which the experimental procedure is to be followed is to be decided.
(c) Use of the randomization method must be made.
(d) Selecting the mathematical model which helps in describing the experiment.

3. Analysis –
(a) Collecting the data and then processing this data.
(b) Computation of the test statistics.
(c) Interpreting the results for the experiment.

What are the Advantages of the Experiment?
1. Helps in carrying out the manipulation of the independent variable.
2. Provides better effective control for the contamination from the extraneous variables.
3. Helps in better adjustment of the variables.
4. The convenience and the cost of the experimentation are superior to the other methods.
5. Experiments can be repeated.

What are the Disadvantages of the experiment?
1. The artificial nature of this type of method is the main drawback.
2. Although experimentation method is a comparatively cheap method but in some cases it can really affect the budget planning.
3. Generalization from the non – probability samples can pose problems.
4. Predicting is not possible and if it is done – it can be risky in some cases.

Explain the types of Survey’s?

1. Factual Survey –
Needs factual information.

2. Opinion Survey –
Opinion of the person interrogated is used to make an evaluation on a certain method.

3. Interpretive Survey –
• The person interviewed has to do more than just reporting a fact.
• Acts as an interpreter.

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The Survey Method

Introduction and Definition
For the classification of the research designs, the approach needed to collect the primary data, is very commonly used. For solving this particular purpose, there are two options we can observe the events, people, behavior, conditions etc.

Also we can use the other alternative option which involves communicating with the people about the various topics. Now in this article, we will study about the survey method which is used a lot as a social survey and finds maximum use where the published data is available.

So this method is the technique used for carrying out the investigation processes with the help of direct observation or by the collection of the data by conducting interviews etc. The survey method is a very essential and a useful tool to gather the evidence relating to the various social problems.

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Write about types of Interview Method used in Data Collection

Following are the types of Interview methods widely used for data collection in Research Methodology

A. According to the formality
(a) Formal interview –
• Set of well defined questions are presented by the interviewer.
• Answers are noted down according to the given rules.

(b) Information interview –
• Full authority is with the interviewer for carrying out the needed alterations in the various questions.

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Write about Objectives, Advantages and Disadvantages of Interview Method of Data Collection

Introduction and Meaning
The collection of the meaningful data, that is able to work as information at a certain stage of research methodology is a necessity in today’s marketing oriented competitive world. For this purpose large number of methods or techniques are available but verbal method is used very commonly for the collection of the data is the “Interview method”.

According to Vivien Palmar, “the interview constitutes a social situation between the two persons, the psychological process involved requiring both the individuals mutually respond through the social research. The purpose of the interview calls for a varied response from the two parties concerned”.

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