What are the types of Questionnaire?

Types of questionnaire
1. Structured questionnaire

a) Have definite and concrete questions.
b) Is prepared well in advance.
c) Initiates a formal inquiry.
d) Supplements and checks the data, previously accumulated.
e) Used in studies of the economics and the social problems, studies of the administrative policies and changes etc.

2. Unstructured questionnaire
a) Used at the time of the interview.
b) Acts as the guide for the interviewer.
c) Is very flexible in working.
d) Used in studies related to the group of families or those relating to the personal experiences, beliefs etc.

A questionnaire can also be divided as the follows depending on the nature of the questions therein
1. Open ended questionnaire
a) Respondent is free to express his views and the ideas.
b) Used in making intensive studies of the limited number of the cases.
c) Merely an issue is raised by such a questionnaire.
d) Do not provide any structure for the respondent’s reply.
e) The questions and their orders are pre – determined in the nature.

2. Close ended questionnaire
a) Responses are limited to the stated alternatives.
b) One of the alternatives is simply YES or NO.
c) Respondent cannot express his own judgment.

3. Mixed questionnaire
a) Questions are both close and open ended.
b) Used in field of social research.

4. Pictorial questionnaire
a) Used very rarely.
b) Pictures are used to promote the interest in answering the questions.
c) Used in studies related to the social attitudes and the pre – judices in the children.

Write a note on The Questionnaire Method followed in Research Methodology

Introduction and the meaning
This method acts as a great source or a facility for the collection of the data from the diverse and scattered group of people. A questionnaire consists of a variety of the questions printed or typed in a definite order on a form – which are mailed further to the respondents. The respondent has to answer these questions on his own.

The main function or the objective of the questionnaire is to collect data from the respondents, who are generally scattered in a vast diverse area.

This method also helps in the collection of reliable and dependable data.

According to Bogardus, “a questionnaire is a list of the questions sent to a number of persons to answer. It secures the standardized results that can be tabulated and also treated statistically.”

Advantages of the Questionnaire
1. Requires less skill.
2. Less training is needed.
3. Cheaper in nature.
4. Also impersonal in nature.
5. Pressure is less.
6. Anonymity.

Disadvantages of the Questionnaire
1. Returns are low if compared to the other methods used for the collection of the data.
2. Response is also less.
3. Less flexible in working.
4. Occurrence of errors.
5. Less reliable.
6. Sometimes answers obtained can be wrong.
7. Not efficient in the depth – problems.

What are the steps involved in carrying out an experiment?

Steps involved in carrying out an experiment are:-

1. Choice of variable –
a) Investigative questions can be prepared by the researcher depending on the nature of the problem.
b) Hypothesis should be operationalised.
c) Variables are to be selected by the researcher.
d) Number of the variables to be tested is to be decided.

2. Levels of treatment –
a) Refer to the differences or the distinctions made by the researcher between the different aspects of the treatment conditions.
b) Levels assigned to an independent variable should be based on the simplicity.

3. Experimental environment –
a) Environmental control constantly holds the physical environment of the experiment.
b) The researcher must have the complete knowledge about the various extraneous variables.
c) These extraneous variables can exist in the factors like age, gender, race etc.
d) Their presence can have a great affect on the dependent variables.

4. Choice of the Experimental Design –
a) Are very unique in nature compared to the other research designs.
b) Provide positional as well as the statistical plans.
c) Helps in designating the relationship between the experimental treatments and the experimenter’s observations.
d) Helps in providing the strength to the generalization of the results beyond the experimental settings.

5. Subjects allocation –
a) The selected subjects should represent the population to which the researcher has to generalize.
b) Firstly a sample frame is made and then the subjects for the experiment to the groups are assigned – Randomization method is used for this purpose.
c) Experimental subjects act as a self – selecting sample as mostly the size of the sampling frame is small.

6. Tests, Pilot tests –
a) Pilot testing reveals the errors in the design.
b) Pre – testing helps in carrying out the refinement before the final test.
c) Scripts can be revised during this step.

7. Analysis –
a) By carrying proper and accurate planning and the pre – testing, the data needed for the experiment can be given an order and structure.
b) These structures are usually very uncommon to the surveys.
c) The various options used by the researchers to measure and instrument are observational techniques, coding schemes, paper and pencil teats, self – report instruments with the open or the closed questions etc.

Explain The Experimental Method?

Definition and Meaning
There are different types of research – the two major types of the research that need to be identified for getting the basic understanding of the experimental method are the exploratory research and the conclusive research.

Experiment is actually the study consisting of the intervention by the researchers beyond that requires for the measurements.

Generally these types of the interventions are very helpful in carrying out the manipulation of the various variables that ultimately help in setting up and observing the effects caused to the subjects that are being studied.

The explanatory variable is manipulated by the researcher and then the researcher observes whether the hypothesized dependent variable is affected by the intervention or not.

The experiment possesses a statement of the problem that is to be solved. One basic point to be kept in mind is that during the designing of the experiment, the design should be such that all the points of view to establish what the experiment is intended to do must be brought out.

By experimentation one is able to get very accurate information and experiments are carried out at basically at the two following scales –
1. Laboratory Scale –
a) Experiments are carried out in an artificial environment.
b) Unwanted effects of the extraneous variables can be minimized.
c) Natural nature of the responses of the subjects cannot be estimated.
d) High level of the internal validity is also available.
e) But sometimes these experiments can become invalid in nature.

2. Field scale –
a) Carried out in the real – world environment.
b) Offers very high level of the external validity.
c) But the internal validity suffers.
d) Are very costly compared to the experiments that are carried out in the laboratory.
e) Are very time – consuming.
f) Very complicated in the working nature.

What are the Objectives of Experiment?
1. Measurement of the outcome or the dependent variable.
2. Determining the functional form that is responsible for the linkage of some of the criterion variable to a set of the input variables.
3. Identifying the relevant variables.
4. Establishing the causal relationships.
5. Formulating the hypothesis.
6. Defining the various variables.

What are the Constituents of an Experiment?
1. Experiment –
(a) Making a statement that is very clear and also is easy to understand.
(b) Selecting the dependent variable or the response factor.
(c) Deciding or selecting those factors in which the variation is to be made.
(d) Selecting the different levels of these factors.

2. Designs –
(a) The number of the observations to be taken is to be decided.
(b) The order in which the experimental procedure is to be followed is to be decided.
(c) Use of the randomization method must be made.
(d) Selecting the mathematical model which helps in describing the experiment.

3. Analysis –
(a) Collecting the data and then processing this data.
(b) Computation of the test statistics.
(c) Interpreting the results for the experiment.

What are the Advantages of the Experiment?
1. Helps in carrying out the manipulation of the independent variable.
2. Provides better effective control for the contamination from the extraneous variables.
3. Helps in better adjustment of the variables.
4. The convenience and the cost of the experimentation are superior to the other methods.
5. Experiments can be repeated.

What are the Disadvantages of the experiment?
1. The artificial nature of this type of method is the main drawback.
2. Although experimentation method is a comparatively cheap method but in some cases it can really affect the budget planning.
3. Generalization from the non – probability samples can pose problems.
4. Predicting is not possible and if it is done – it can be risky in some cases.

Explain the types of Survey’s?

1. Factual Survey –
Needs factual information.

2. Opinion Survey –
Opinion of the person interrogated is used to make an evaluation on a certain method.

3. Interpretive Survey –
• The person interviewed has to do more than just reporting a fact.
• Acts as an interpreter.

4. General Survey –
• Conducted to collect the general information.
• Involves no particular hypothesis.
• E.g. census of population.

5. Specific Survey –
• Conducted mainly to study some specific problems.
• Helps in testing of the certain theories or hypotheses.
• Are very much to the point.
• Only information directly related to the particular purpose is collected.

6. Regular Survey –
• Repeated after regular time intervals.
• Economic surveys are type of regular surveys.
• Are carried on by permanent machinery created for collecting the information.

7. Ad – hoc Survey –
• Are under taken once for all.
• May be sometimes conducted in phases if the area of the investigation is very large.
• Help in testing a hypothesis.
• Helps in supplementing the missing information relating to any research problem.

8. Preliminary Survey –
• Also called as the pilot study.
• Occupies the place of fore running of the final survey.
• Helps in getting the first hand knowledge of the universe to be surveyed.
• Helps in preparing the schedule or the questionnaire.
• Helps in the organization of the survey on the proper lines.

9. Census Survey –
• Every single unit in the universe is contacted to collect the information.
• Is a very time consuming process.

10. Sample Survey –
• Very convenient and time saving in nature.
• Small part of the universe is taken as the representative of the whole.
• Results obtained from this small part are applied to the whole universe.

11. Official Survey –
Conducted by the government through its departments.

12. Semi Official Survey –
Conducted by the quasi government bodies like the universities, corporations etc.

13. Private Survey –
Conducted by the individuals, associations, and the institutions etc., which are non government agencies.

14. Confidential Survey –
Results and the data collected are kept secret.

15. Public Survey –
Results and data collected are shared with people i.e. are available for public.

The Survey Method

Introduction and Definition
For the classification of the research designs, the approach needed to collect the primary data, is very commonly used. For solving this particular purpose, there are two options we can observe the events, people, behavior, conditions etc.

Also we can use the other alternative option which involves communicating with the people about the various topics. Now in this article, we will study about the survey method which is used a lot as a social survey and finds maximum use where the published data is available.

So this method is the technique used for carrying out the investigation processes with the help of direct observation or by the collection of the data by conducting interviews etc. The survey method is a very essential and a useful tool to gather the evidence relating to the various social problems.

According to Shelly M. Harrison, social survey is a, “comparative undertaking which applies scientific method to the study and the treatment of the currently related social problems and the conditions having definite geographic limit and bearing, plus such a spreading of facts, conclusions and recommendations as will make them, as far as possible, the common knowledge of the community and a force for the intelligent coordinated action.”

Objectives of the Survey
1. Collecting general information.
2. To provide data that later helps in the formulation of the hypothesis.
3. To enable the researcher to have direct and close contact with the process or the phenomenon, that is being studied.
4. To know the people better by knowing their opinions and their attitudes.
5. To explain the relationship between the various variables.
6. To refine and expand the old theories in order to get the new theories.

Characteristics of the Social Survey
1. Are less intensive in nature and also involve widely dispersed group of people.
2. Data collected in a social survey can act as a proper base for carrying out further the various social research operations.
3. Helps in making the assertion about the distribution of the characteristics in a population.
4. Helps in carrying out the study of specific current problems of the society only.
5. Uses methods like observation, interview etc for collecting the data.

Advantages of Survey
1. Researcher is able to directly get involved with the people from whom he wants to get the information.
2. The results obtained from this method are not based on any type of theory but instead are based on the actual facts of the life.
3. Very helpful in the testing of the validity of the theories.
4. Offers greater objectivity.
5. Very less possibilities of existence of the personal bias.
6. Help in the formulation of the hypothesis.

Disadvantages of survey.
1. Very expensive.
2. Very time consuming.
3. Wasteful method.
4. Less reliable.
5. Sometimes personal bias may vitiate the results.
6. Deals with the problems relating to the immediate importance only.
7. Occurrence of the non response errors.
8. Not an efficient method for conducting the verification of the accuracy of the data, which is collected.

Write about types of Interview Method used in Data Collection

Following are the types of Interview methods widely used for data collection in Research Methodology

A. According to the formality
(a) Formal interview –
• Set of well defined questions are presented by the interviewer.
• Answers are noted down according to the given rules.

(b) Information interview –
• Full authority is with the interviewer for carrying out the needed alterations in the various questions.

B. According to number
(a) Personal interview –
• Single person is interviewed.
• Close personal contracts between the interviewer and the interviewee can be established.
• Uneconomical of time and money.
• Intimate and the personal aspects of the individual can be obtained.

(b) Group interview –
• Two or more persons are interviewed.
• Helps in gathering the routine information.
• Economical of time and money.
• Information obtained is very superficial in nature.

C. According to purpose
(a) Diagnostic interview –
• Helps in knowing the causes or the cause of a malady.
• Useful in the clinical psychology and also in the psychoanalysis.

(b) Treatment interview –
• On the diagnosis of the cause of the psychological malady further interviews are conducted.
• By these interviews, patient comes to know about his malady which may be due to the mental, complex or the faulty life style.

(c) Research interview –
• Helps to collect the data about a particular research problem.
• Questions to be asked during the interview are pre determined.

(d) Interviews to fulfill curiosity –
• Used to satisfy some of the questions that are lurking in the mind of a scientist.

D. According to the period of contact
(a) Short contact interview
• Helps in filling up the schedules, tables etc.
• A short duration of such an interview is sufficient.

(b) Prolonged contact interview –
• In contact with research by schedule, the case history method needs prolonged interviews.

E. According to subject manner –
(a) Qualitative interview –
• Involve non quantifiable subject matter.
• For e.g. interviews held for the case studies.

(b) Quantitative interview –
• Certain facts for a large number of persons are gathered.
• For e.g. census interviews.

(c) Mixed interview –
• Both routine and specialized data is sought.
• Some of it may be quantifiable while some of it may be non quantifiable.

F. According to role –
(a) Non – Directive interview
• Also called free or unstructured interview.
• Interviewer has no control over things in such an interview.
• Interviewer provides no direction.
• Interviewer has no predetermined set of questions for asking.
• The informant is free to explain or tell his experience.

(b) Focused interview –
• Focuses attention on the given experience of the respondent and its effects.
• Interviewer knows in advance about the aspects of the question he has to cover.
• Used in the development of the hypothesis.

(c) Repeated interview –
• Helps in understanding the development of the processes.
• Helps in knowing the aspects affecting the behavior pattern.

Write about Objectives, Advantages and Disadvantages of Interview Method of Data Collection

Introduction and Meaning
The collection of the meaningful data, that is able to work as information at a certain stage of research methodology is a necessity in today’s marketing oriented competitive world. For this purpose large number of methods or techniques are available but verbal method is used very commonly for the collection of the data is the “Interview method”.

According to Vivien Palmar, “the interview constitutes a social situation between the two persons, the psychological process involved requiring both the individuals mutually respond through the social research. The purpose of the interview calls for a varied response from the two parties concerned”.

This method acts as a very vital tool for the collection of the data in the social research as it is all about the direct systematic conversation between an interviewer and the respondent. By this the interviewer is able to get relevant information for a particular research problem.

Objectives of Interview
1. Collecting the data – both extensively and intensively.
2. Exchanging the data and also the experiences.

Advantages of the interview method
1. Very good technique for getting the information about the complex, emotionally laden subjects.
2. Can be easily adapted to the ability of the person being interviewed.
3. Yields a good percentage of returns.
4. Yields perfect sample of the general population.
5. Data collected by this method is likely to be more correct compared to the other methods that are used for the data collection.

Disadvantages of the interview method
1. Time consuming process.
2. Involves high cost.
3. Requires highly skilled interviewer.
4. Requires more energy.
5. May sometimes involve systematic errors.
6. More confusing and a very complicated method.

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