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Explain various types of the Controls?

Types of the Controls
1. Direct controls

a. Called as the direct controls as the people here get so well tuned to the job that there are very less chances for the deviations to take place.
b. Also called as the preventive controls.
c. Aims at the saving on the cost of the control.
d. Also aims at the zero defects from the initiation.
e. Great emphasis is given on the prevention of the need of the controls; to build the systems, the procedures, the culture, the discipline etc.
f. But with time these types of the controls also get older and outdated.
g. For the proper functioning of the direct controls, assistance of the indirect controls is very much needed.

2. Feed forward controls

a. Whenever a process is performed, two factors are very critical namely the inputs and the outputs.
b. Here we take into account the various deficiencies of a process well in advance, so that these can be cured or controlled at the initial stages.
c. The shape of the feedback controls is taken by almost all the controls.
d. It is advised by the various experts to have the both feed forward and the feed backward controls on the process.
e. Helps in the establishment of a right direction and control right from the beginning.

3. Feed backward controls

a. Here the controls are put at the output end as the deviations that occur are not known to us till the moment of the output.
b. Very heavy cost is involved.
c. Results into the customer dissatisfaction.

4. Real time controls

a. Involve the instantaneous feedback almost in the real time, (real time can defined as the time when both the creation of a report and its transmission is done almost with no gap that one can almost read it at the time it is being sent) for e.g. the fax or the telephone.

5. Automation in the controls

a. Here, mainly for the development of the control systems involving very less human power, building of the instrumentation takes place.
b. Computers are used for the feedback systems and for the automatic corrections.

Explain designing of the Control System?

Designing the control system
1. Objectives

a. The objective of the control system should be fixed.
b. The picture of the objective should be very clear in the mind of the people involved.
c. Answers to the questions like what to control and how to control etc. should be well planned beforehand, before the introduction of the control system.
d. The objective should be decided on the basis of the design of the system.
e. The deviation should be signaled automatically by the system.

2. Design essentials

a. The designing of the control should be done based on the desires of the customer.
b. For a particular control system, one person should be nominated responsible.
c. For knowing or testing the degree of the reliability, it is very essential to calibrate the various measuring instruments.
d. The corrections should be carried out.
e. Must possess feedback to its correctness.
f. The critical points form a very critical part of the control system design.
g. The deviation that occurs must be calculated or measured.

Explain the Control Techniques used in Controlling?

Control Techniques
1. Budgeting techniques

a. Involves a very practical approach for carrying on with the controlling process.
b. Budgets are very future oriented and largely depends on the forecasting trends based on the past.
c. Budgeting depicts the forecasting trends mainly depending on the finance and the connected numerical information.
d. This technique acts as a very critical and an important tool for comparing what one has planned and what is the actual performance against it.
e. But the main drawback of this technique is that it takes into account the past performance as the only guide, which at times can prove to be short.
f. As a result of this, the whole package has to be worked out on the zero bases.

2. The Activities Network control

a. Forms a very critical and a necessary part of the management tool.
b. Here the performance of the various activities is compared and then depending on this, one comes to know about the various deviations and then accordingly the activities can be controlled.
c. Various techniques like the Gantt Charts, the Program Evaluation and the Review Techniques etc are used for performing the various activities.

3. Statistical database control

a. In this method, the generation of the Statistical data coupled with the planning system is generated, mainly for the management control system.
b. Special reports like the market prospects, the customers survey findings etc. are used as a feedback for the different activities involved and these activities can be based on the criteria of per person or per machine or per activity.
c. The data can involve the relations or the trends, which can be easily extrapolated.
d. For controlling the deviations and to know about them, the audits like the statutory audits, the performance audits, the cost audits etc., can be carried out.

4. Personal observations
a. This technique acts as a great tool for controlling and bringing the system back to having a very sound health.
b. In many cases, the eyes act as the best tool for noticing the overbalancing in the people, their working, and the environment.
c. A lot of time is saved by this technique.
d. The personal observation avoids much of the paper work.
e. One of the best methods used here is the ‘Wandering Around’ method.
f. In this method, wandering around is taken as a regular exercise and the work monotony is used.
g. People are not allowed to get stuck into their cabins for long periods of the time as with this, a gap is created between the relationships and the environmental attachment.

5. Social Controls

a. The managers possessing the objective view of the outsiders are helped a lot by this technique.
b. The users clubs of the customers, the supplier’ s club, the dealer’s club, the employees clubs etc. can be organized easily with this method.

6. Systems and the Procedures

a. Manuals form very necessary documents for bringing some rigidity in the operation.
b. It helps in creating a judicial system for an organization.
c. Management audits can be conducted sometimes in this technique to reduce the lacunae that may be present in an organization.

7. Management by the Objectives

a. Acts as a great tool for the control purpose.
b. By having a clear picture of the various objectives in mind, one can easily plan the various controls.
c. Management can be observed as the people working for the measurable goals, deciding the output at the end of an activity.

What is the role of Automation in Controlling?

Automation in the Controls
1. Computers

a. Acts as a great sensing device.
b. The real time controls have been made possible with the help of the computers.
c. All the fields of the management in today’s world have been pervaded by the computers.
d. Acts as a great platform for the information, the communication, the discussions etc.
e. Various automatic controls like the bells, the buzzers, the alarm etc. act as very good examples of the various equipments being used in the process of the controlling, as these are linked to the central computers.
f. The conversion to the recording and the broadcasting information can be done easily with the help of the computers.

2. The Communication Tools

a. The remote control of the various managerial activities is now possible because of the easy movement of the remote communication, which has been made easy by the various improvements and the performances that have taken place in the technology.
b. The home office has now become a reality.
c. The work hours have become more flexible in the nature.

3. The development of the software

a. Now days so many software packages have come up, which are having their own control systems.
b. The softwares play a very important role in the development of the working controls.

What is Staffing?

For a very good working of an organization, the steps are needed to be taken right from the starting. Great emphasis should be given on the structure of an organization, while carrying out the designing process of an organization. The process that involves the manning of an organization is referred to as the staffing. There is no life to the activities of an organization but then also the organization is manned with the help of the humans.

The real and exact meaning of the word staffing refers to the fitting of the people to the various jobs or the positions and vice versa. In this process, first a man is approved, followed by the approval of the job. One very important point that is very important to be remembered here for the process of the staffing is that the main focus is not on to how to find a suitable person for a certain job but the major point on which great emphasis is given involves how to fit a person into a certain job.

Staffing generally includes the filling of the various work positions and the maintenance of these positions that are generally required overtime and fully manned by the competent people. In this process, the various people are invited, then choices are made and then the selected one’s are fixed with the responsibility of the work and doing this again and again whenever required in a well maintained manner also forms a very critical and an essential part of the process of the staffing.

Staffing sometimes has to be done in the nature of the owners, the promoters etc. and that too much ahead of the structure of the organization and the main reason behind carrying out the process of the staffing here is that the formation of the business and the structure of the building is a human activity.

Basic features of the Human Resource
1. Not at all a standardized resource.
2. Involves some degree of the expectations and the expected results.
3. Presence of the uncertainty factor.
4. Humans involve the rationality and the various perspectives of the thinking and doing things.
5. Emotions form a very major part.
6. Involves the use of the mental equipment intelligence.
7. Ability to react differently at different times depending on the situations or the conditions that arise during an activity.
8. Possess the properties that are very essential for leading any team etc.
9. Supported by a nature that likes to live with the companions.
10. The team spirit is lacking.
11. Availability of the knowledge, the skills, the values, the experience etc.

What are the stages of Staffing?

Different Stages of the Staffing
1. Man – Power Planning:

a. For performing this step in a very efficient manner, the knowledge about the total staff requirement of an organization is very important.
b. A ready organization chart helps a lot in the man power planning as with the help of the organization chart, one comes to know about – the people who are working, the job involved, the age and the designation of the employees, the years of the work within the organization.
c. An up to date Inventory chart is very much crucial for carrying out the planning of the man power.

2. Position Announcement

a. Involves the advertising, informing the recruiting companies etc.
b. Also at times, involves announcing in the company itself.
c. Depends on the organization or the management of the organization to decide to transfer the internal staff for filling certain vacancy or calling the outsiders for the filling of the various vacancies.
d. Great emphasis is given on the control of the cost during this step.
e. Major steps that are or can be performed during the position announcement can be summarized as the follows

I. Advertising with the media.
II. Targeting certain areas for better working.
III. Deciding the selection criteria.
IV. Deciding the ways for carrying on the interviews in a good phased manner.

3. Interviewing

a. The major steps involved in the process of the interviewing can be summarized as the follows

I. Short – listing of the candidates who have applied for the vacancy.
II. Confirming the interview methodology.
III. Drawing the interview program.
IV. Informing about this program to the prospective applicants.

b. There was a time when the method explained above was the most commonly used methods for carrying on the process of the staffing but this method consumes a lot of time and has now given way to the method called as the ‘Walk – in Interviews’.
c. In this method, the time consumed is comparatively much lesser and the preliminary yes or the no is decided as soon as the man walks in.
d. Great emphasis is given on the communication of the expectations of an organization.

4. Appointment

a. It is very necessary to communicate the results of an interview immediately as far as possible as a part of the business etiquette.
b. Those who are selected should be given the appointment letter.
c. Those who are not selected should be informed immediately as with the help of this, the anxiety in these persons can be decreased.
d. One more point that is very necessary is that the confirmation about the candidates who are joining must be obtained, so that the further things can be planned in a good manner.

5. Induction

a. Induction can be defined as the process of the welcoming of a new person in a job.
b. For properly utilizing the potential of the humans, it is very necessary that the new person assimilates with in the work ethos and the culture.
c. The new person should be made comfortable and familiar to the day to day activities.
d. The work manual that includes the rules and regulations of an organization is also given to the new person. This work manual is also referred to as the ‘induction manual’.
e. The identity card is also given to the new person.

6. Orientation

a. It is very important that each of the members of an organization is well oriented towards the philosophy of the organization.
b. For achieving this orientation, the person should be made to read the concept of the orientation from the manual.

How can Staffing be made more meaningful?

Steps essential for making staffing more meaningful

1. Succession planning

a. It is necessary to keep in view the age distribution.
b. Great focus should be laid on making the people succeed as this will have a lot in the continuation of an organization.
c. Presence of a judicious mixture of all the ages is a must.

2. Social planning

a. First aim of all the organizations should be to serve the society.
b. The various responsibilities towards the society must not be ignored as good working of the society is not at all a solo effort but it is a group effort.
c. Organizations should represent the society.

3. Legal approval

a. For acting as a person, the organization needs a legal sanction.
b. For this purpose, every country possesses some laws incorporating the social organizations as the legal entities.
c. The minimum wages, the welfare facilities, the various laws for the competition are decided with the help of the various industrial laws present.
d. No one is completely free to decide one’s own staffing policy.

4. Building a learning organization

a. Large emphasis is given on building the creativity within the staff.
b. For tackling the various competitive situations in a good confident manner, one must possess great amount of the innovative spirit and for this development of a learning culture is very much necessary.

5. Career management

a. It is very necessary for an organization to take care of the building of the careers of the organization members as they do not get enough time to put their own time in the development.
b. The organization must play the role of a mentor.

6. Building teams

a. For meaningful staffing process, it is very important in today’s competitive scenario that the work is done by building groups or teams.
b. By working in teams, one can learn a lot of things and the qualities of a person like the cooperation, leading teams etc. can be learnt and then incorporated into the working style.

7. Building of the work ethos and the culture

a. Complementing and substituting of the staff is very critical as by this a sense of the working spirit can be nurtured into the staff.
b. All this helps in the development of the work ethos and the culture.

What is Organizing?

Introduction
In the execution of the planning, it is very important to take certain steps that act as a great aid for the present as well as the future but a major thing to be taken into the consideration here is that of the fact that it is true that certain actions are performed, depending on the various situations that arise during the process, for the execution of the plans but at the same time it is very important that these steps or the actions are performed in the right way and also at the right time. For this, very good organization of the different actions by establishing the suitable structure is needed.

Planning is very essential and important for the management but the plans must be organized as by this organization, the plans become very much action oriented in the nature.

A general structure is involved in the process of the organizing and then this step is followed by the day to day organization of the resources. The long term objectives play a very vital role in the building of the general structure as with the help of the long term objectives, the growth and the business stability are obtained. Hence, it can be said that there is no doubt that the planning is very much essential for the proper running of the organization but just planning is not enough as the plans must be implemented practically and this implementation can be done in a better and an efficient way with the help of the organizing process.

The Human Resource
People who possess the ability to conceive the business idea, who are the owners, the managers, the employees etc, all those who have a major contribution in the management of the execution of the business, form a very major part of the human resources.

Managing the human resource is very much essential for the smooth running of the organization. With the help of the human resource only, one is able to have a complete control over the other types of the resources, which may include the materials, the machines, the money, the information, the time etc. In the absence of the human resource these resources cannot be managed and hence, it can be said that the process of the organizing is very much dependent on the human resource.

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