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What is the role of Automation in Controlling?

Automation in the Controls
1. Computers

a. Acts as a great sensing device.
b. The real time controls have been made possible with the help of the computers.
c. All the fields of the management in today’s world have been pervaded by the computers.
d. Acts as a great platform for the information, the communication, the discussions etc.
e. Various automatic controls like the bells, the buzzers, the alarm etc. act as very good examples of the various equipments being used in the process of the controlling, as these are linked to the central computers.
f. The conversion to the recording and the broadcasting information can be done easily with the help of the computers.

2. The Communication Tools

a. The remote control of the various managerial activities is now possible because of the easy movement of the remote communication, which has been made easy by the various improvements and the performances that have taken place in the technology.
b. The home office has now become a reality.
c. The work hours have become more flexible in the nature.

3. The development of the software

a. Now days so many software packages have come up, which are having their own control systems.
b. The softwares play a very important role in the development of the working controls.

What is Staffing?

For a very good working of an organization, the steps are needed to be taken right from the starting. Great emphasis should be given on the structure of an organization, while carrying out the designing process of an organization. The process that involves the manning of an organization is referred to as the staffing. There is no life to the activities of an organization but then also the organization is manned with the help of the humans.

The real and exact meaning of the word staffing refers to the fitting of the people to the various jobs or the positions and vice versa. In this process, first a man is approved, followed by the approval of the job. One very important point that is very important to be remembered here for the process of the staffing is that the main focus is not on to how to find a suitable person for a certain job but the major point on which great emphasis is given involves how to fit a person into a certain job.

Staffing generally includes the filling of the various work positions and the maintenance of these positions that are generally required overtime and fully manned by the competent people. In this process, the various people are invited, then choices are made and then the selected one’s are fixed with the responsibility of the work and doing this again and again whenever required in a well maintained manner also forms a very critical and an essential part of the process of the staffing.

Staffing sometimes has to be done in the nature of the owners, the promoters etc. and that too much ahead of the structure of the organization and the main reason behind carrying out the process of the staffing here is that the formation of the business and the structure of the building is a human activity.

Basic features of the Human Resource
1. Not at all a standardized resource.
2. Involves some degree of the expectations and the expected results.
3. Presence of the uncertainty factor.
4. Humans involve the rationality and the various perspectives of the thinking and doing things.
5. Emotions form a very major part.
6. Involves the use of the mental equipment intelligence.
7. Ability to react differently at different times depending on the situations or the conditions that arise during an activity.
8. Possess the properties that are very essential for leading any team etc.
9. Supported by a nature that likes to live with the companions.
10. The team spirit is lacking.
11. Availability of the knowledge, the skills, the values, the experience etc.

What are the stages of Staffing?

Different Stages of the Staffing
1. Man – Power Planning:

a. For performing this step in a very efficient manner, the knowledge about the total staff requirement of an organization is very important.
b. A ready organization chart helps a lot in the man power planning as with the help of the organization chart, one comes to know about – the people who are working, the job involved, the age and the designation of the employees, the years of the work within the organization.
c. An up to date Inventory chart is very much crucial for carrying out the planning of the man power.

2. Position Announcement

a. Involves the advertising, informing the recruiting companies etc.
b. Also at times, involves announcing in the company itself.
c. Depends on the organization or the management of the organization to decide to transfer the internal staff for filling certain vacancy or calling the outsiders for the filling of the various vacancies.
d. Great emphasis is given on the control of the cost during this step.
e. Major steps that are or can be performed during the position announcement can be summarized as the follows

I. Advertising with the media.
II. Targeting certain areas for better working.
III. Deciding the selection criteria.
IV. Deciding the ways for carrying on the interviews in a good phased manner.

3. Interviewing

a. The major steps involved in the process of the interviewing can be summarized as the follows

I. Short – listing of the candidates who have applied for the vacancy.
II. Confirming the interview methodology.
III. Drawing the interview program.
IV. Informing about this program to the prospective applicants.

b. There was a time when the method explained above was the most commonly used methods for carrying on the process of the staffing but this method consumes a lot of time and has now given way to the method called as the ‘Walk – in Interviews’.
c. In this method, the time consumed is comparatively much lesser and the preliminary yes or the no is decided as soon as the man walks in.
d. Great emphasis is given on the communication of the expectations of an organization.

4. Appointment

a. It is very necessary to communicate the results of an interview immediately as far as possible as a part of the business etiquette.
b. Those who are selected should be given the appointment letter.
c. Those who are not selected should be informed immediately as with the help of this, the anxiety in these persons can be decreased.
d. One more point that is very necessary is that the confirmation about the candidates who are joining must be obtained, so that the further things can be planned in a good manner.

5. Induction

a. Induction can be defined as the process of the welcoming of a new person in a job.
b. For properly utilizing the potential of the humans, it is very necessary that the new person assimilates with in the work ethos and the culture.
c. The new person should be made comfortable and familiar to the day to day activities.
d. The work manual that includes the rules and regulations of an organization is also given to the new person. This work manual is also referred to as the ‘induction manual’.
e. The identity card is also given to the new person.

6. Orientation

a. It is very important that each of the members of an organization is well oriented towards the philosophy of the organization.
b. For achieving this orientation, the person should be made to read the concept of the orientation from the manual.

How can Staffing be made more meaningful?

Steps essential for making staffing more meaningful

1. Succession planning

a. It is necessary to keep in view the age distribution.
b. Great focus should be laid on making the people succeed as this will have a lot in the continuation of an organization.
c. Presence of a judicious mixture of all the ages is a must.

2. Social planning

a. First aim of all the organizations should be to serve the society.
b. The various responsibilities towards the society must not be ignored as good working of the society is not at all a solo effort but it is a group effort.
c. Organizations should represent the society.

3. Legal approval

a. For acting as a person, the organization needs a legal sanction.
b. For this purpose, every country possesses some laws incorporating the social organizations as the legal entities.
c. The minimum wages, the welfare facilities, the various laws for the competition are decided with the help of the various industrial laws present.
d. No one is completely free to decide one’s own staffing policy.

4. Building a learning organization

a. Large emphasis is given on building the creativity within the staff.
b. For tackling the various competitive situations in a good confident manner, one must possess great amount of the innovative spirit and for this development of a learning culture is very much necessary.

5. Career management

a. It is very necessary for an organization to take care of the building of the careers of the organization members as they do not get enough time to put their own time in the development.
b. The organization must play the role of a mentor.

6. Building teams

a. For meaningful staffing process, it is very important in today’s competitive scenario that the work is done by building groups or teams.
b. By working in teams, one can learn a lot of things and the qualities of a person like the cooperation, leading teams etc. can be learnt and then incorporated into the working style.

7. Building of the work ethos and the culture

a. Complementing and substituting of the staff is very critical as by this a sense of the working spirit can be nurtured into the staff.
b. All this helps in the development of the work ethos and the culture.

What is Organizing?

In the execution of the planning, it is very important to take certain steps that act as a great aid for the present as well as the future but a major thing to be taken into the consideration here is that of the fact that it is true that certain actions are performed, depending on the various situations that arise during the process, for the execution of the plans but at the same time it is very important that these steps or the actions are performed in the right way and also at the right time. For this, very good organization of the different actions by establishing the suitable structure is needed.

Planning is very essential and important for the management but the plans must be organized as by this organization, the plans become very much action oriented in the nature.

A general structure is involved in the process of the organizing and then this step is followed by the day to day organization of the resources. The long term objectives play a very vital role in the building of the general structure as with the help of the long term objectives, the growth and the business stability are obtained. Hence, it can be said that there is no doubt that the planning is very much essential for the proper running of the organization but just planning is not enough as the plans must be implemented practically and this implementation can be done in a better and an efficient way with the help of the organizing process.

The Human Resource
People who possess the ability to conceive the business idea, who are the owners, the managers, the employees etc, all those who have a major contribution in the management of the execution of the business, form a very major part of the human resources.

Managing the human resource is very much essential for the smooth running of the organization. With the help of the human resource only, one is able to have a complete control over the other types of the resources, which may include the materials, the machines, the money, the information, the time etc. In the absence of the human resource these resources cannot be managed and hence, it can be said that the process of the organizing is very much dependent on the human resource.

What are the Principles on which Organizing Depends?

The Principles on which the organizing depends
1. Division of the labor –

a. In an organization, any target can not be achieved by a single person, many people are involved in this process, standing responsible for performing the different duties assigned to them.
b. Hence it can be said that the division of the labor is a necessity for the better and efficient functioning of an organization.
c. Division of the labor acts as the first principle in the process of the organizing.
d. Helps in making the group function more practical in the nature.

2. Principle of the work specialization –

a. By adhering to this principle, the work that is being entrusted being a part of the total work becomes a specialized function.
e. The organization designing gets divided in to a number of the specializations and if the men continue to perform these activities on a daily basis, the result obtained is that they become specialist in their own work field.
b. In such a case, the skills of that person increases in that particular specialization but the general sense of the other work reduces as the time passes on.
c. As a result of these factors only, the concept of the job rotation is very much important.

3. Principle of the Departmentation –

a. In order to carry on with the work process in a very easy manner, the different activities that are related to each other are put under the different groups and these are referred to as the departments.
b. The departmentation can be defined as the clubbing of the very closely inter linked functions which are labeled as the separate departments.
c. All the organizations are divided in to the various departments and this division is generally based on the size and the nature of the business.
d. The principle of the departmentation follows a hierarchical style.
e. The hierarchy usually consists of the following –

I. Strategic business unit
II. Divisions
III. Departments
IV. Sections
V. Sub sections
VI. Individual

4. Principle of the authority levels –

a. For doing any type of the business, the organization gets the authority from the society.
b. This authority is literally distributed throughout the organization.
c. Authority refers to the decision making implanting authority with the help of the actions involving the direction and the utilization of the organization resources.

5. Principle of the span of the management –

a. The number of the men working under the manager directly controls the effective span of any manager in order to manage the people.

6. Scalar principle of the management –

a. Explains the dependence of an organization, both vertically and horizontally, on the optimum point of the efficiency and the effectiveness in the performance.
b. More the steps of the levels of the authority, more the organization becomes vertical in the nature.
c. The scalar principle of the management accepts the inevitability of the scale of the organization to carry on with the communication.

7. Principle of the unity of the purpose –

a. The whole organization should move towards the single purpose.
b. The actions that are carried on in unison are more effective in the nature.
c. The unity of the purpose should build the much needed unity between the members.
d. The unity of the purpose should have the ability to convert the unity in to a force in the mission.
e. But must remain flexible in the nature and the working as this will help in adapting to the various external as well as the internal conditions.

8. The principle of the navigation –

a. It is not necessary that everything goes according to the plan i.e. an organization may not always be able to find a straight and a clear way, so it is very important that it possesses the ability to change a temporary direction in order to navigate around the various difficulties and then also remain on the directional course that it had planned.
b. The visionary skills can be steered out of the rough weather with the help of the Principle of the unity of the purpose.

9. Principle of the authority and the responsibility delegation –

a. According to the Principle of the authority and the responsibility delegation, the authority and the responsibility should always go together.
b. The responsibility cannot be given without the passing of the required authority.
c. According to the Principle of the authority and the responsibility delegation, the authority and the responsibility are concurrent in the nature.
d. When someone delegates the authority, it also gives a coextensive responsibility to the person involved as they cannot go without each other.
e. The authority helps a lot in taking the decisions along with the relative actions.
f. With the help of the authority, the organization resources can be used especially for these purposes.
g. When the responsibility that comes along with the authority is not accepted, then it goes back to the person by whom the authority has been given.
h. The organizational authority is not having the ability to carry on with the work in a void.
i. When the people do not take the authority and the responsibility for running an organization, then it has to be liquidated.
j. When the delegated authority is accepted by the person to whom it is delegated, the responsibility is said to be assumed by such a person.

10. Principle of the unity of the command –

a. It is very necessary that the person must be under the command of another person.
b. As by this, he will not get any type of the contradictory orders.
c. It is very important to maintain the unity of the command within the organization and for this; the organization is designed in a particular manner.
d. An individual cannot be assigned control of more than one person.

11. Principle of the synergy –

a. The united strength of the organization must increase with the coming together of the people.
b. If in any type of the case, where this is not taking place, it means that the energy is being dissipated by the structure of the organization.
c. The combined strength of the persons is more than its mere sum total.
d. This extra energy that is present is generally referred to as the synergy  energy.
e. One important point that must be known at this point of time is that this synergy energy is produced when the people come together.

12. Principle of the team spirit –

a. There was a time, when this concept did not get the proper regard that it deserved. But now the basic understanding has changed among the people and now the management does  not purely work on the rationality.
b. According to this principle, the building of an organization is just a mechanical process that is done from the point of view of the ease of the management.
c. The principle of the team spirit states that there is surely something which is emotional for the people who work in the organization.
d. They possess the motivation, the pride, the sense of belonging, the stability, the growth etc. in the personal life.
e. The team spirit refers to the sacrifices done for the team results by the various members of the team.
f. The organizations must work as teams as by this, great effectiveness and the efficiency can be brought in an organization.

Explain various Types of the Organization?

Types of the Organization
1. Formal organization –

a. The establishment and the development of this type of the organization are very formal in the nature.
b. Helps in providing a shape to the various organized activities.
c. The Formal organization is developed for a continuous purpose mainly involving the activities that are repetitive in the nature.
d. This organization looks after the growth and the stability in the business.
e. In the Formal organization, the design is such that that it acts as a great support for the distribution of the authority, creation of the positions, linkage of the various functions etc.
f. The Formal organization is not at all born by itself.
g. Efforts of someone to get the organization established in the order to make it a juridical person are involved in the Formal organization.
h. The Formal organization is registered with some type of the legal provision in the acts as those meant for the shop establishment, the companies, the cooperatives, the trusts, the societies etc, to provide it the legal existence in its own name.

2. Informal organization –

a. Here, the people come together informally through their acquaintance.
b. Informal relations are created within the same organization which may not be formally planned.
c. The Informal organization is born of itself.
d. Whenever there is a formal organization, an informal organization is born.
e. The Informal organization comes up with the help of the social relations such as the trust, the dependence, the liking etc.
f. The position and the problems in the formal structure are given great weight age informally.
g. A different communication channel is created by the informal organization and this is referred to as the grape vine.
h. With the help of the informal communication, the situation in the organization can be sensed in a different way all together.
i. The gossip can be conveyed with the help of the informal communication.

3. Matrix organization –

a. According to the principle of the unity of the command, one person should take the order from only one person.
b. Plurality of the persons giving the orders should not be present.

4. The project organization –

a. One goes for the project with the establishment of the temporary organization with a fixed end in mind.
b. Anything that has a beginning and an end, is referred to as the project organization.
c. The main responsibility of this type of the organization is to handle the complete project in a especial managerial way as the project is not going to be a continuous process at anytime.
d. The specialized, skilled people are required at the different stages and also, in this type of the organization, the replacement of the specialized people can be done depending on the different types of the situations that may arise during the project.

5. Virtual organization –

a. This type of the organization, does not look like to be physically operating but very well works like the one, due to the modern communication equipment which may include the following functions –

I. Digital mail
II. Voice communication
III. Cameras
IV. Projection systems
V. Audio and video conferencing

Explain the Various Forms of the Juridical Organizations?

Forms of the Juridical Organizations
1. Sole trading concern or the proprietorship
There are a lot of the individuals who carry on their business in their name, there is a certain law according to which these businesses are considered as the individuals or the persons.

When these persons deal with all the contracts and its various consequences, these persons possess certain rights.

The main thing that is involved in the business is the exchange of the goods and the various services and all this is followed with its completion with the help of the money or any other type of the settlement. In accordance to the judicial system, the seller, the buyer and the user of the goods and the services get complete protection with the help of the law. The individuals always have the option of resorting to the law for a fair settlement. If in any case, the employees of this type of the proprietor do anything that is against the law, the proprietor is then forced to take the responsibility on his name for any such acts that are performed.

Making or signing any type of the contract of selling the goods or the services and its satisfaction in terms of the money and the money’s worth involves the social relations. The individuals in any wrong do get complete protection in accordance to the act. The various registrations of the different types are needed in organizing the business. So it can be said that it is very necessary to get the approval from the respective acts like the companies under Indian companies act, cooperatives under the cooperatives societies act etc.

2. Partnerships –

a. The Partnerships are governed with the help of the mutual contract between the partners.
b. The partners have an unlimited liability for meeting the obligations in the business individually.
c. In a scenario, where two or more individuals are willing to do the business in partnership jointly, on the legal basis these are responsible as individuals jointly and severally.
d. The partnerships can also be registered as the limited liability partnerships in order to give them the freedom from the unlimited liability, but this type of the registration is present in some countries only.

3. Joint stock companies with the limited liability –

a. The limited liability to all the share holders in the ownership of the business can be obtained with the help of this type of the organization.
b. The shares need to be collected and this collection of the shares is referred to as the stock of the shares.
c. Those who contribute to the shares possess a limited liability to the extent of the face value of a share.
d. When the full value of the share is not paid, the liability is limited to only paying the full value but at any level is not at all responsible to the business losses beyond this limit.
e. With the help of this type of the organization, people can contribute to the business without assuming the liability to the business losses.
f. A very big capital can be raised from many people.
g. In private limited companies, this number is generally restricted in terms of the shareholders.
h. The form, a choice under the existing acts in the operation in any country is to be made with the help of the people, who are responsible for the organization of the activity.

4. Co – operatives –

a. In the beginning, the cooperatives acted as a self help group where the people came together in a mutually beneficial activity.
b. In this type of the society, system of one vote per one person acts as the base.
c. The formation of the society is guided by the number of the people.

5. Societies and the Trusts –

a. Under this type of the organization, one can register an organization as a charitable organization or a social organization with no distribution of the profit.
b. The number of the societies is registered for the educational and the charitable purposes.
c. The members pay subscriptions in order to collect the funds for the society.
d. No member can take the share of the profit or the income of the organization so registered.

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