Following are the topics which are covered in this section. You can choose from the sub sections or continue directly below the sub sections.

  • No categories

What is organizational cultural and how does it starts?

What is organizational cultural?
The concept of organizational cultural has gained a lot of acceptance during the last few decades and the examination of organization cultural has become evaluation. The cultural of a group has been defined as a pattern of shared basic assumption that this group learns while solving the problems of external adaptation and internal integration. These are to be taught to the new members as a correct way to perceive, think and feel in relation to these problems. Organizational cultural refer to a system of shared meaning held by the members that distinguished their organizational from others. This system of share meaning is a set of main characteristics that the organizational values.

How does organizational cultural starts?
Traditionally the founders of the organization have a major impact on the cultural of the organization. As the present customs traditions and general way of doing things a largely due to what it has done before and the degree of success it has achieved in those endeavors, the ultimate source of organizational cultural can be traced to its founders. The founders have a vision about what the organization should do and they are not tied on by previous ideologies or customs. The small size of the organization in the beginning also helps in the imposition of the vision of the founder on all the members of the organization. The organizational cultural is sustained through selection practices, action of the top management and socialization methods.

What is personality and what are the factors that affect Personality?

All through these years a universal agreement could not be reached on the exact meaning of personality. It continuous to main different things to different people while some take it as a general some of traits or characteristics of a person, some other feels that it is a unitary mode of response to different situation in life. Personality can be defined as a pattern of traits that characterized and individual. It is a very diverse and complex psychology concept and is concerned with external appearance and behavior, situational interactions and self measurable traits.

What are the factors that affect personality?
The determinants of personality are broadly categorized into biological familial, cultural, social and situational categories. The biologically factors include heredity and the physical feature of a person. The structure of the brain is also a factor falling in this category. Cultural factors is also contribute in the personality of a person. Attributes like independence, competition, aggression and co-operation are affected by culture. Familial factors also have a significant impact on the personality of a person particular in early stage. This category includes factors like parents and other member s of family, environment at home and the order of birth among siblings. Social and situational factors also affect the personality of a person.

What is Delegation?

Delegation means assigning some work to others and also giving them the authority to perform that task. It involves the granting of the right of decision making in some identified areas and also giving the responsibility of the completion of the task to a subordinate. As in this process a superior delegates a part of his authority to a subordinate he can not delegate the authority which he himself doesn’t have. The subordinate is expected to work within the limitations that were put at the time of delegations. Delegation could be written or implied, specific or general or formal or informal. It helps in reducing the work load of the manager as they can delegate some of their work to others. It also helps in improving motivation, morale, and the job satisfaction of the subordinates. It also enables a manager to utilize the specialized knowledge and experience of a subordinate.

The process of delegations involves the determination of accepted results and the assignments of duties to the subordinates. The authority to perform these duties is also given to the subordinates so that they can take decisions and use the available resources. The subordinates to whom the authority is delegated are also made accountable for the performance of these duties.

What is strategic planning or long range plan?

The plan of action adopted for the achievement of the organization goals is called a long range plan. It also known as strategic planning and covers a time frame which could extent to five years or more. The mission of the organization is determining and the strengths and weaknesses are also evaluated. Long range plans also include the forecasting of the external environment like changes in the technology, social economical and political factors that indirectly effect the organization. Then the organizational goals are developed and those alternatives are chosen that can give competitive advantages to the organization. The implementation of strategy is the last step and control for measuring performance after the implementation of the plan should also be developed.

What are Short Range Plans?

Short range plans or the operational plans are concerned with the day to day functioning and their focus is on short run operating period, generally a year or season. It is usually done at lower levels of management and involves gathering of information and selecting the most effective course of action after evaluating this information.

Short range plans are generally guided by standing plans and single use plans. The policies procedures and rules followed in the organization come under standing plans and single use plans are use for a specific period and includes market plans financial plans and production plans.

What is the purpose of Planning?

What is a planning?
Planning means setting up a blue print for future and deciding what do you went to do and who will do a particular task. Plans are of many times types and are formulated to achieve specific purposes or all purpose plans.

There are 7 elements of planning:
1) Objectives
2) Policies
3) Procedures
4) Rules
5) Budget
6) Programs
7) Strategies.

A successful plan should be flexible in nature and subject to improvement. It should also be subject to enforcement to be effective. A successful plan is evaluated by the extent that a plan is in conformity with the objectives of the organization and to the extent a plan satisfied the requirements of cost, speed, quality and return on investment.

What is the purpose of planning?
Every plan should be linked with some objectives. The planning done by managers is aimed at achieving the organizational goals. The planning helps people in concentrating their efforts on the most important jobs rather than wasting time on the lesser important work. The purpose of planning is also to minimize the cost of performance and eliminate unproductive efforts. It also helps the management in adopting and adjusting according to the changes that take place in the environment. Planning also provides a basis for teamwork as when the goals are properly defined assignments can be fixed and all the members can start contributing in the achievement of these objectives. Planning gives a sense of direction and ensured that efforts are being put to useful purpose instead of being wasted. Planning also facilitate control because without planning there will be nothing to control.

What is Controlling?

For making people act, different types of the methods like the planning, the organizing, the staffing, the leading etc. are used. But after the people start acting, generally the result that is obtained seems to be a mere waste. Now here, the role of the management of the organization is very critical and should be performed very carefully. The main responsibility of the management here is that it should take proper care of the fact that the results that are produced are strictly according to the objectives and none of them is a waste or use – less in the nature. This responsibility of the management of the organization is often referred to as the ‘Controlling’.

The Controlling acts as a very useful managerial function or the tool as it ensures that the actions conform to the expected results with the help of the suitable feedback systems. This process also includes correcting any deviation time in order to see that the results are ensured within the proper time and the costs as per the planned standards. One very important point that should be kept in mind is that for having the control, it is very necessary to plan the things i.e. without the planning, the control cannot be obtained. The major reason behind this is that if we will not know about the things that are to be achieved, the resources that are available, the various things that are to be taken care of etc., then it will not be possible to carry on with the process in a controlled manner.

So now it can be said that the planning is very much needed both at the personal level as well as at the organization level as it acts as a mental discipline and plays a very major role in the process of the controlling. But one very important thing that should be taken care of is that the planning that is done for controlling the process should be done very carefully and should not be vague in the nature i.e. should be very meaningful so that it can help in the establishment of the controlling standards.

What are the Principles of the Controlling?

Principles of the Controlling are :-
1. Goals

a. The establishment of the measurable goals acts as a prerequisite to the controlling.
b. For the implementation of the program, it is very necessary to have a conceptual document and this document is referred to as the planning.
c. From here, the process of the planning goes through the conceptual to the measurable objectives.
d. At times these can also be qualitative in the nature and in such cases it becomes very necessary to convert these into the measurable terms.

2. Establishment of the standards

a. The measurable goals that are created have to be converted into the standards.
b. In case of the measurable goals, the measure of weighing the results is fixed.
c. But in case of the standard, one expects for a minimum performance depending on the given efforts and the time.
d. During this step, the measures of the efforts, the time, and the cost are fixed in the nature.
e. The performance can be judged by setting the minimum standards.

3. Nature of the controls

a. The controls must be economical in the nature not only in the implementation but also in correcting the deviation by getting a signal on time.
b. The control costs in terms of the implementation.
c. The evaluation of the control in a tangible as well as the intangible form, depends greatly on the judgment of the management.

4. Selection criteria of the critical points

a. It is very necessary to keep the costs of the control down, so hence it is not at all possible to have a control over each stage in the process.
b. For this purpose, it is very important to select certain control points.
c. The selection largely depends on the individual testing skills, group output, its criticality to the operation in the total activity etc.
d. The raw materials that cannot be reworked and returned must be selected as the critical point for the control.
e. The selected critical points can be changed on a rotational basis and also by changing after the feedback that is obtained from the results of the process.

5. Feed back system

a. The feedback should be very efficient and meaningful in the nature.
b. It is very essential that the control points are very well supported by the control systems as these points at any stage can be feed forward as well as backward.
c. With the help of the Feedback system, one can make a decision over the fact that whether the cost of the continuity in the operations in the similar manner would be good in the customer’s interest or not.
d. This system helps in the determination of the fact that whether any type of the rework or correction is required or not.

6. Discipline and Flexibility

a. Both the Discipline and the Flexibility are very much required in the process of the controlling and for this, the presence of the control system is very essential.
b. Discipline can be achieved, if it is assured that the same process will be carried on during the existence.
c. In case of any type of the changes or the deviations in the design of the product etc, then it is not at all possible to continue with the same set of the control points.
d. Discipline can be maintained only if the various activities involved remain totally unchanged.
e. But sometimes such circumstances, like the results that are obtained at a particular point do not meet the requirements expected of such a control, arise and then it becomes very necessary for the control system to possess the flexibility.
f. One very important point to be kept in mind here is that the changes that are brought in the control systems should be brought in, depending on the demands of the business.
g. As the environment present around the organization and that present within the organization keep on changing continuously, so it is very important that the control systems possess the flexibility.

7. Development of the controls

a. The controls should be tailored in such a way that the whole organization should be able to read the feedback reports.
b. The results of the control should be communicable and also actionable in the nature.
c. Any type of the difference in the output should be brought out by the various controls as with this, the deviations can be easily pointed out without doing much work.

8. Corrections

a. With the help of the controls, one can find out the deviations in the planned performance.
b. If the control is ideally placed, its organization and the management can act in the self interest of the business.
c. It is very necessary to direct the controls towards the corrections and then suitable corrective actions should be taken.

Page 3 of 1012345...Last »

Recently Added

Follow us on FB