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Explain the Ethical and the Social Dimensions of Information Systems and Quality

In the recent times, a great change has been observed in the field of the information technology and as a result of these changes, a large number of the changes have also cropped in the rules of the competition. And also with the changing of these rules in the competition and with the increase in the application of the computers – all this has given birth to a number of the ethical and social dilemmas.
Now at this point it becomes very much necessary to understand the meaning of ‘Ethics’ to have an in – depth under – standing of the information systems and the quality. ‘Ethics’ refers to the system or the code of the morals of a particular person, religion, group or professions. ‘Ethical’ refers to having to do with the ethics or the morality of or conforming to the moral standards of the conduct of the given profession or the group.
Griffin in 1990, formulated the person’s ethics through the operation of the five key fundamental forces in the individual’s environment viz,

1. Family influences
2. Peer influences
3. Experiences
4. Values and morals
5. Situational factors

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Describe the Software Quality Assurance

Quality Assurance can be defined as the “planned and a systematic pattern of all the actions necessary to provide an adequate confidence that the item or the project conforms to the established technical requirements”
Software Quality Assurance in a true sense acts as an umbrella activity that is actually implied through the software process. Software Quality Assurance helps in the reduction of the amount of the re – work that it must do and which further results in the lowering of the costs and the improved time to the market.

Software Quality Assurance should be able to –

a. Provide for the exhaustive testing.
b. Obtain a mathematical proof of the correctness.
c. Convince one- self that the output from the each phase of the development process is functionally equal to its predecessor.

Software Quality Assurance group has the responsibility for preparing the Software Quality Assurance plan. This plan is very helpful in the identification of the following –

1. Evaluations to be performed.
2. The audits and the reviews to be performed.
3. Standards, those are applicable to the project.
4. Procedures for the error reporting and also for the tracking.
5. Documents to be produced by the SQL group.
6. Amount of the feedback provided to the software projects team.

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What is Software Quality? Explain Software Quality Criteria?

Software acts as the set of the instructions and these set of the instructions are put into the computer to ultimately cause it to function in any type of the code. Quality of the software also indicates towards the degree of the excellence of a product or a service.

According to the ISO 1985, quality means the degree to which the attributes of the software enable it to perform its specified end item use.

According to the ISO 1986, quality means the totality of the features and the characteristics of a product or a service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or the implied needs.

Software quality depicts the power of the software to be fit for its purpose and the capability that ensures the following –
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Explain Information Systems and Quality?

In the beginning when the time was not considered as a constraint, the information technology was used only in the activities involving the scientific and the research related work. But as the time passed on, the information technology has grown as a very critical and an essential tool playing a very defining and an important role to out – perform the various business rivals.
For the development of the information systems, a constant trade – off of schedule and cost versus quality is required. One very important point to be kept in mind here is that the software products should be evaluated very carefully before delivering and implementing them.
Failure of the soft ware’s can very largely affect the different parts of the society – and ultimately through the different routes, there affects are able to reach the people who are using these soft ware’s directly or in directly.

Need for the Software Quality Assurance
The software quality assurance is mainly required for the following reasons –

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What are the capabilities of Internet?

Different people approach the concept of the internet with different mind – sets; to some people it is just a collection of the various networks, according to some it is a collection of the servers connected with the help of some of the common protocols – but a huge fact is that the INTERNET has developed as an electronic medium at the world stage. It is actually the global connection between the computers, with the help of which the individuals can send e – mail, make travel bookings, order books and lots more.

It is actually the ‘Super – Highway’ of the information in the world and is generally referred to as the ‘networks of the networks’

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What is a Network? Explain its Advantages and Topologies

The networks in today’s world have actually become a routine and these networks have come into this information technology world as a result of the massive development that has taken place in the field of the science of the computer and also the telecommunications and the connectivity. The way the business was done about two decades back and the way the business is being done today – has been influenced by a great number of the changes. In the past the business first was done on a manual level but as the time passed the business and the different ways of carrying out the business were greatly affected by the computers and also the telephone facilities. The ways have also been influenced a lot by the industrial revolution and as well as the various developments that have taken place in the automobiles sector.
Now the businesses are carried under the supervision of the very powerful micro – processors and the telecommunication networks which enable the companies to carry out the activities at a great pace and also in a very efficient manner.

Computer Networking can be defined as the process which has the responsibility of providing the connection between the two or more computers – which ultimately helps the various users to communicate with each other and also share the hardware or the software resources and also not to get constricted by the stand – alone systems.

Computer Network, according to the Information Technology Act 2002, refers to the “inter – connection of one or more computers with the help of the use of the satellite, microwave, terrestrial line or the communication media and the terminals or a complex, which consists of the two or more inter – connected computers, whether or not the inter – connection is continuously maintained.”

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What is Data Transmission and explain Transmission Channels

Data Transmission
Transmission of the data is very much important in the services related to the data communication and the information technology as this technique makes use of the data processed in the order to forward the same to the end user.
The communication of the data mainly involves the processing of the data as well as the transmission of the data and for the communication of the data, following devices play a very critical role and these devices should work in a very efficient manner.

1. Transmitter
2. Converter at the transmitting end.
3. Transmission channel.
4. Converter at the receiving end.
5. Receiver.

Transmission signals –
The telecommunication systems help in the transmission of the data and this data is then transmitted in the form of the electromagnetic signals.

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Explain Data Processing Methods?

Data Processing Methods

1. Batch processing system –
a. Until the early 1960’s, this was the only method used for the processing of the data.
b. But is still used in certain methods involving the massive volumes of the periodic transactions.
c. Involves the storage of the information in a group or a batch till such a time when it is efficient or necessary to process them.
d. Very efficient for the preparation and processing of the transactions, when they are processed against the sequential file.
e. The various transactions are accumulated in a transaction file.
f. This transaction file is periodically used for the up – gradation of the master file, which consists of the permanent information on the different entities.
g. Very useful for the enhancement of the control of the transaction processing.
h. One major drawback of this type of the system is the delay in the detection and the correction of the different errors.

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