Apart from earlier techniques of appraisals mentioned here, we now have modern methods too. Some of these are:-
1. Assessment centre method: This method was used for the first time in 1930 by the German army and then in 1960’s by the British army. This method tests a candidate in different social situations using a number of assessor and procedures. The performance of an employee an also his potential for a new job is evaluated in this method by assessing his performance on job related simulations. Characteristics that the concerned managers feel are important for the success of a particular job are included in these simulations. Techniques like business games role playing and in basket exercises are used in this method. The employees are evaluated individually as well as collectively on job related characteristics. Personal interview and projective tests help in assessing the motivation, career orientation and dependence on others of an employee. To measure the intellectual capacity written tests are used. The evaluators in this method consist of experienced manager working at different levels who prepare a summary report for the management as well as for the employees. This technique usually measures the planning ability interpersonal skills and organizational skills of an employee.
2. Human Resource Accounting Method: Human resources are a valuable asset for any organization and it can be valued in monetary terms. This method evaluates the performance of an employee in terms of costs and contributions. HR costs include expenses incurred on HR planning recruitment selection induction and training. The difference between this costs and the contribution by an employee reflects the performance of that employee. This method is still developing hence is not very popular at present.
3. Behaviorally anchored rating scale (BARS): This method combines the graphic rating scale and the critical incident method. It determines in advance the critical areas of the performance and the most effective behavior to achieve the results. Then the actual job behavior of an employee is evaluated against the predetermined behavior.
The following steps are used for constructing BARS.
1. Supervisor and other persons well acquainted with a job are asked to described specific critical incidence of effective performance behavior
2. Then these persons categorized the incidents into sets of performance dimensions and each set is then defined.
3. These people then reallocate the original critical incidents. They are given the cluster definition and critical incidents and are asked to re-design each incident to the dimensions that describes it the best. A critical incidents is retain only a some percentage that is usually between 50 – 80 percent of this group assigns the incidents to the same cluster as was done by the earlier group.
4. The second group then rates each incident on a 7 – 9 point scale where the rating is done on the basis of how well the behavior described in the incidents represented the performance on the appropriate dimensions.
5. A sub set of incidents is used as behavior anchors for the performance dimensions.
4 Appraisal through management by objectives (MBO): This concept was introduced by Peter Drucker in 1954 who named it management by objectives and self control. It is an effective way it is also known as goal setting approach to appraisal .In this process the supervisor and subordinate members jointly identify the common goals of the organization and set the areas of the responsibility of each individual in terms of results expected from that person. These measures are use for operating the unit as well as for appraising the performance of the employees.
5 The 360 degree appraisal: The 360 degree method of performance appraisal is used to make the appraisal process more transparent, objective and participative. It introduced the concepts of self appraisal subordinates appraisal, peer appraisal and appraisal by customers. It is called a 360 degree method because it involves the evaluation of an employee by persons above him, below him and alongside him. Structured questionnaires are used to collect information from the seniors, subordinates and peers. The employee to be evaluated thus acquires a central position and everyone around him participates in the appraisal process in the 360 degree method. The following four are the main components of 360 degree appraisal :
Self appraisal: It allows an employee complete freedom in accessing his or her strengths objectively and identifying the areas of development. The employees get a chance to share the development areas with their seniors based on their self appraisal and jointly worked out a plan in tune with the organizational realities like the availability of resources and time. It also gives a chance to the employee to express his career plans which is in the interest of the organization as it knows beforehand the aspirations of its employee.
Appraisal by superiors: An appraisal by superiors involves providing constructive, feedback about the performance of any employee as well as his development areas during the review period. It helps in setting goals for the employees that help in achieve the organizational goals and improve the performance of the employee. The career aspirations of an employee are also put in proper prospective.
Appraisal by subordinates: This is a unique feature of the 360 degree method of appraisal. As the subordinates play an important role in the performance of the employee. The feedback by the subordinates gives firsthand account of how they look at their superior in terms of working style. The capability of a superior in motivating, delegating the work, building a team and communicating with them effectively form the basis of appraisal by the subordinates.
Peer appraisal: It also plays an important role in 360 degree appraisal as the role of peers is quite important in life of an employee. Selecting the right peers is very important and peers from the departments that are directly related with the department of the employee should also be included. It mainly focuses on feedback about the style of functioning of the employee under review and can also include his ability to work as team leader besides his co-operation and collaboration.
Potential appraisal: It is different from performance appraisal as it refers to the abilities of the employees that are not being used at the time of appraisal. It searches for the latent abilities of the employee in discharging higher responsibilities in future. The potential of the employees is judged on the basis of his present performance, personality traits, past experience and age and qualification. It also looks at the unused skills and knowledge of an employee. It aims at informing the employee their future prospectus and helps the organization in drawing your suitable successions plan. It also requires updating the training efforts regularly and advised the employees on things which they can do to improve their career prospectus.