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Discuss various Writing Styles?

There are various styles of writing. It depends upon the author how to present his ideas, feelings, and attitudes to the problems he has undertaken explore. Six types of essay writing are generally followed:

(i) Narrative writing – to relate or recount events i.e., story element, drama, dialogue, fictional writing. ;

(ii) Descriptive writing – to draw a wordscape, to give an account or describe an object process, situation, problem, etc.

(iii) Explanatory writing – to uncover details bringing out a composite picture of a situation or problem.

(iv) Argumentative or analytical writing to make a critical analysis of the materials and the problem; to develop a particular stand-point on a topic.

Scientific and technical writing – In this style of writing, a hypothesis or theory is investigated and applied which bring to some conclusion. The conclusion should be verifiable by other readers and writers.

How to write job application?

Application for a Job: Consists of two parts (1) your bio-data and (2) a covering letter. Bio-data is often referred to as curriculum vitae or resume. The application including the bio-data creates an impression of the candidate in the selector’s mind. To make sure that your application is taken seriously, there are there things you must follow :

(i) Compile accurate information about your life. Include details like age, academic qualifications, co-curricular activities, work experience, publications, seminars attended and membership held.

(ii) Present the information properly for there is one thing you must remember. It is through your packaging that the employer gets a clear picture of your personality. AH the information that you provide must be chronologically arranged in reverse order and there must be sub-headings wherever possible. For instance, work experience should be explained in a proper reverse sequence.

(iii) The bio-data should be formulated impressively with margins on both the left and right hand sides of the paper. The left hand margin should be about 4 cms vide and the right margin 2 cms. The top and bottom margins should be about 3 cms. Type your name and the designation you are applying for on the top of the page. Read your semi-final draft for corrections, make the necessary changes, and make the final draft thereafter, do not make corrections with a pen. When you make a bio-data, there is one thing you must remember a good bio-data, and half your jobs is done.

What are the elements of effective writing?

Well cultivated writing skills are helpful at all levels of management and administration. A manager may have to write for expressing or supporting and opinion, choosing and defending a point of view, presenting and argument or for persuading and audience. There are some elements which can make the writing more effective. These are :

(i) Understanding the problem carefully: – Make sure that the problem is well understood then consider the ways that can be used to address the problem. It is a good idea to briefly note down some of these ideas. We can also take a look at the way similar problem was handled by others in the organization.

(ii) Organize your ideas with an outline: – Use the ideas that you have noted down while considering their problem. Organize them into logical series by using an outline.

(iii) Budget your time: – Any good writing requires corrections and rewriting before a final draft is made. It is a good idea to decide how much time you are going to spend on one writing.
Use correct sentence structure and appropriate words: – One makes more grammatical mistakes if he makes long and complex sentences. It is a good idea to keep the sentences to short and use simple words.

(iv) Don’t waste time worrying about spelling, punctuation, and grammar: Incorrect spelling, punctuation, and grammar will hurt your score it the errors make your essay difficult to understand. You should attempt to write your essay as correctly as possible, but don’t waste time worrying whether or not each sentence is grammatical or each word is spelled correctly. Such an approach blocks the flow of your ideas-

Don’t waste time worrying about whether other people will agree with your opinions and argument: Your essay is evaluated on how you present your argument, not on whether the evaluator agrees with you. Be sure you have supported your argument well and have answered all parts of the question.

Conclusion: In the end always remember to give a conclusion to your write-up.

Discuss Reading Strategies to build vocabulary?

There are some strategies that can be used while reading to increase our vocabulary: Theses are:-

Read comprehensively
The more we read, the better we become at reading. We read on a variety of topics in order to build our vocabulary. The larger the vocabulary we have, the less time we will have to spend trying to understand words in context and the more time we will have for accurate reading.

II. Read Challenging material
If we always read things that are easy for us, we will not develop our ability to read more difficult material.

III. Read the material critically
Think about what you are reading. Ask yourself what the passage or article is about. Ask your self how the writer defends the ideas presented in it.

(a) Extensive Reading:
Read as much as you can -particularly newspapers, magazine articles, and encyclopedia entries that are academic in nature. By reading this type of material, you will encounter the kind of words that will be useful for you to learn. When you are reading, try to guess the meaning of unknown words from the context. To do this, use other words in the sentence or passage as clues that show you the moaning of unfamiliar words. If you still are not certain, look the word up in your dictionary and check if your guess was correct.

(b) Use Notebooks
When you come across a word you don’t know, first write it on a notebook and then look it up in a dictionary. Write down the meaning and any other information that will help you to learn the word. Increase your vocabulary by studying your notebook.

Write sentences using the new words. Try to add at least three new words with their synonyms (words that mean the same) and antonyms (words that mean the opposite) to your vocabulary every day.

What are the different reading techniques?

With the latest advancements in the fields of information technology reading large amount of information has become imperative and it is demanding more time and energy. There are mainly five times of reading styles that are ordinarily used while reading. These are discussed here briefly: –

(a) Labeling
Labeling helps a person to remember the context of a document, memorandum or letter. Here intention is not to go in detail into tacts. In labelling we survey the text in the following manner: we look at the title, section headings, and special print, illustrations, graphs and tables. Then we build up an idea ol what the text as a whole is about

(b) Skimming
Skimming means exploratory reading so as to have general view of a document. It is considered the most valuable reading tool of the busy office assistants as well as middle executives. Here one allows his/her eyes to wander across the page without regular fixation. The eyes move where they want to, trying to pick out important words.

(c) Scanning
The technique of scanning is normally associated with reading newspapers. The senior executives scan a large number of newspapers, business magazines, and special news bulletins, while taking their morning tea or going in their cars, or waiting for train or airplane. Thus they keep abreast with the latest developments in the fields of politics, business, finance and world news.

(d) Sampling
Sampling implies lo have an outline picture of the whole. In a book, we may read preface, acknowledgments, contents, introduction and conclusion, then decide what the book or report is about and whether it is worth reading in detail.

(e) Studying
Studying as an act of reading is essentially a process of thinking. This type of reading requires repeated readings and taking notes of the essential points of the discourse. The reader must be able to penetrate beyond the lexical and stated meaning of the passage and have contextual and implicit meaning. In the world o; business and finance, the implicit and contextual meaning involves the political, legal, environmental and future prospect of a programme or project.

Describe the process of Reading?

Effective reading is an important skill that demands conscious and sustained cultivation of good reading materials. It is the end result of a complex mental process that comprises:

(a) Recognition of words which are symbols of facts and ideas. It requires a good knowledge of vocabulary—its spelling and pronunciation which leads to the group of phonetic and morpho-phonemic structures of a particular language.

(b) Next comes Perception, which is the translation of symbols into meanings. Here is required an awareness of the common grammatical categories such as singular-plural, masculine-feminine, active-passive, sequence of tenses, use of articles, etc.

(c) The next is Comprehension, i.e., understanding of meaning, and putting it in a context, thereby deconstructing the whole idea presented by the author. This leads to the problem of denotation. i.e., literal meaning and connotation, i.e., interpretative meaning. Here one has to learn to read between the lines: whether the author is saying what he means or ho is saying by implication and in an allegorical style.

(d) Association comes in the end. Comprehension leads to association. What is the relevance of the written text with the present state of knowledge and to the reader? Here new ideas and knowledge are synthesized with the old for better understanding and by making ft relevant to the present state of the knowledge and to the reader? At this stage new ideas and knowledge are synthesized with the old for the better understanding and by making it relevant to the present situation.

How can we increase the efficiency of speech by the effective use of body language?

The correct body language goes a long way in increasing the effectiveness of a speech. Body language is not only can find to gesture and posture but also includes the appearance of the speaker including his cloths, hair, shoes, jewellary and cosmetic etc. The below mentioned tips can help us in effective use of body language while indulging in public speaking.

(i) Look at the Audience: It is easier said than done but looking at the audience while speaking is very important. The reactions of the audience tell a speaker if they are interested in the speech or not. When the audience stops looking at the speaker it clearly indicates that they are not listening. While speaking to small groups, a speaker should look at all the members of the group and maintain eye contact with them, including those sitting at the extreme left or right side. While speaking to a large group, eye contact can be maintained with the group by looking at them in the shape of alphabet M or W. Eye contact is essential if the speaker wants to retain the interests of the audience in what is being said.

(ii) Smile: A good public speaker should learn how to smile with eyes. It can be learnt by practice though initially it can be quiet difficult especially when the speaker is some what nervous. Smiling while speaking creates an impression that the speaker is happy even if he is not. It is also surprising to not how very often the audience also smiles back.

(iii) Avoid creating barriers : It is always tempting to hide behind a desk or a lectern, especially for those speakers who face nervousness while speaking publicly but in order to make the speech more effective it is very important that a speaker gets as near the audience as possible.

(iv) Stand upright: A speaker should find the most comfortable position for standing while speaking with the public but leaning up against furniture or standing with hands in pockets should be avoided strictly. Usually the best position is to stand straight with feet slightly apart.

(v) Stay clear of distracting mannerisms: It is common for most of us to use our hands while speaking and we should continue with it during speaking publicly but gesture like waving your arms should be avoided as these can distract the audience. Jingling coins or keys in pockets or clanking jewelry can also distract the audience. If the audience is distracted it becomes difficult for them to concentrate on what is being said to them.

(vi) Be natural: It is also difficult especially for the first time public speaker but with time one learns to stop worrying about himself and concentrate on the message that has to be delivered through the speech.

How can we make a speech more effective?

The attention of the listeners can be held by relating with their feelings instead of only through reason. We can make our speech more effective by giving some attention to the tone, tempo, emphasis and phrasing.

(a) Tone: Most speakers of the British English tend to use only two or three tones of the musical scale. The Americans add a nasal twang to it. For Indian speakers of English, care should be taken that they articulate clearly, smoothly without introducing angularities of their mother tongue. Sing-song as well as halting articulation manners need to be avoided.

(b) Tempo: Speed of speech is measured by the number of spoken words per minute. Peace is measured by how quickly the listeners feel that the time is passing. Speech is more interesting to the listeners when the speed is varied. If your average speed is too slow your listeners become bored and impatient. On the other hand, if your average speed is too fast, your listeners do not have enough time to take in what you are saying and once again they lose interest.

(c) Emphasis: We put meaning into words by placing emphasis at appropriate points. Emphasize important words and phrases.

(d) Phrasing: The unit of writing is single word. The unit of speech is phrase. It is in the moments of silence, between phrases, however small, that the listener interprets the meaning. Therefore, see that the phrases are separated by pauses so that the listeners can ‘get the picture’ of the spoken speech. A pause should not be too long.

(e) Do not worry about speaking up or speak out.

(f) Try not to think to the mechanics of speech while actually talking to people. Train yourself to speak more clearly in a definite practice period and so gradually make the ‘artificial’ way to become the ‘natural’ way.

(g) Learn a few passages by heart to practices in space moments when alone.

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