What are the Physical Measures of Human Beings Relating To The Respective Socio – Economic Status

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In the recent past, many scientific studies have been carried out and it has been certified many a times that there is a key relationship between the physical measures possessed by the human beings and to the socio – economic status being carried by the respective human beings in there day to day life and also involving the various activities in the day to day life scenarios in the going on life.

In the beginning in order to understand the relationship between the above mentioned parameters, it is very necessary and critical to understand certain factors to get in depth understanding of this the very critical relationship as this relationship helps in the development life long and is an ever learning process. These factors that revolve around this relationship are physical mental relationship, need of the study and its significance in day to day life, definitions of the terms being used, aim of the study, hypothesis, delimitations, samples and the procedures for carrying out these studies, statistical treatments of the data, intelligence scores and tools, physical measures involving their intelligence and their relationship, high and low intelligent students socio – economic status, weight intelligence and their relationship and the need of the study and then followed by the conclusion of the study.

The extensive changes this highly wide world with the passing times has also involved the extensive educational concepts which mainly have come into existence by two types of forces. These are the scientific forces and the technological forces due to the advances in the domains of communications and the productions, the vast changes in the socio – economic, political and the cultural patterns of the society. Science has revolutionalised our mode of the life and also has given a great confidence in our potentialities and the natural abilities and also our capabilities. And also in turn it has helped the man kind i.e. the human beings to move out of the surrounding dogmatic pre possessions, baseless superstitions including the outmoded customs and also the baseless and being followed traditional conceptions. In this new set up of the changing world all over, the impact of the political, economical, social and the cultural factors upon the educational policy and in turn ultimately the affects on the human life and the affects have been occurring from a long time but these were not being realised but now the forces and the certain parameters have forced the mankind to realise this affect that is occurring upon the human race in this changing world.

Further to understand this relationship, it is very important to understand the basic principle of the education in a democracy like ours as it should and in fact it does reverence for the individuality of the child, The child who is to grow older in to a respectable citizen and in turn it will be this grown up citizen up on whom full development and the intelligence and also the willing participation will be linked to. And this will in turn make this citizen in to a more and more morally perfect social organism and the it is a fact that the fate of the democracy being talked every where about depends upon this developed respectable citizen.

The over view of the management depends a lot on the need for the comprehensive and the systematic research on the human capabilities and the potentialities and their relation ships to the education. Such research is very critical and also very important to be carried out as this will be and is having a very great and potential significance in turn for the better adjustment in the varied life to life relationships and the situations creeping in and out and also especially in the education decision making concepts in our life that are always standing in front of the man kind in day to day life as a very critical challenge and hence it is very important to manage things in a very good way. The advancement in the knowledge of the human psychology and also its implications in all the day to day fields of the life advocate that a number of the problems in the educational fields and the various life fields are mainly due to the divergence of the abilities and also the capabilities of the individual. In the various research works carried out it has been found that the intelligence factor is having more and more potentially strong factors as compared to the other abilities of the human beings.

There is always a feeling of the dissatisfaction that is hanging heavy with the teacher as because of the best of the best efforts that have been put up by the teacher he or she can not cater to the differing needs and the capacities of the individual and especially when the difference is that too much big and the great and that too in each and every situation and he or she is to deliberately by – pass either his bright students or the weak students, he or she has to gear up in ant bad or even the worse situations in order to full fill the situations of all the type of the students so that all the types of the man kind get an equal opportunity to learn and In turn grow in to an responsible citizen of the country that one can be proud of and can be an inspiration for all other to follow. But the truth is a bit different as al most 40 percent of the human beings are less fortunate as are un able to benefit from the teachings and hence as a result of this become timid and also emotionally mal adjusted. Such type of the people tend to with draw from the coming situations in day to day life and some times also may tend to resort to the un fair means and in turn also seek excuses in order to remain absent from the critical situations and hence invent defence mechanisms which can be able to take the person to different directions which can be towards a positive developing mode or to the negative mode. And this situations teaches all of us one very important lesson that the greatest sufferer of this heterogeneous classification is the bright child who is a help less minority. And as a result of all these things the abilities of such human beings tend to decrease and as a result of this the ordinary rung is formed around him. In such human beings, one can very easily feel the presence of the in discipline and also the disorders and the dissatisfaction and the disappointment followed by the dull ness and the drabs of the various potentialities and especially the mental capabilities and for this it is very important here that one is able to check and also measure the extent of this type of capacity and for this there is requirement of the measuring instrument and as result of this one can have the ability grouping and as a result of this obviate all the horrors discussed above and this measurement and hence further calculation can lead to the improvement in the abilities of the individual.

This mental testing has not come in to existence now but in fact is present form the centuries and in the earlier centuries there was as discussed mental testing but aware ness about this testing was not that in to the existence. Like now this type of testing is very common and is being used in the direct sense but it the past and in the earlier centuries it was present but was being done in the in direct form and it would not be in correct to say that the this in direct method was not such a method that one could totally rely upon for testing the mental strength and the mental capability of an individual. This is a very well known fact that the subject of the intelligence has always intrigued the man from the earliest days of the recorded language as the individuals have always been characterized more or less as the intelligent beings as compared to the all of the other species made by the god and that are in the existence. This has been proved in the past and now also can easily be proved by the fact that the human beings have been given with the features of being intelligent more or less as one can be dull, bright or perceptive or keen or also can be the one with thick skulled. In the earlier centuries as it has been discussed above the measurement method was in a way al most in direct as those methods mainly focused on the head and the people at that times used to measure the mental or the intelligence ability of the human being with the help of the focus on the head and also taking in to the consideration the physical aspects of the body of an individual. In order to be precise, this method was of the Gall, who is referred to as the father of the phrenology. If we go back in time, as back as the 18th century, GALL and his disciple thought that the head was an index of the brain and the brain was to be an index of the mind. If one moves more back to under stand this concept completely, one needs to go as back as the older days of the phrenology, the time was called as the physiognomy. More thirty years back, one could read about the fact being discussed in this era that brings in to light the theory of the face. This theory said that the face and not at all the cranium is the index of the mind and that reflects out side to the outer world and society.

But this is a hard truth that the various attempts that were made and were still being made were not at all sufficient and were not able to satisfy the various questions that from time to time crepes up to the surface asking various questions as all these attempts were not at all able to resolve the nature of the intelligence. Various attempts were made to under stand self and making others under stands the intelligence. In first attempt it was assumed that the mental intelligence is just the general intelligence which exists as a unitary human trait or as the attribute, analogous to statue or the weight. After this also second attempt was made and according to this attempt it was said that the quantity of the general intelligence mainly grows during the child hood and also during the adolescence and this curve of the growth mainly depends up on the genes or in other words the hereditary factors. Hence it was said that the ones brightness relative to the others expressed by the I Q was to be expected to remain as the constant not depending on the age of the mankind.

After this also the attempt was made which was in fact the third attempt and was also revolving around the general intelligence which now was reflected as the direct measure of the postulated unitary trait. The biological potentialities of the individuals and the groups with respect to the intelligence were taken up as the scores that were achieved as the results from the intelligence tests. Even after this the alternative theories of the intelligence range from Spearman’s doctrine of a single level of the general intelligence came in to being. But even after so many attempts by the various people the theoretical nature and the organizational nature of the intelligence remains controversial and possibly the rectification of the word intelligence is the assumption that to a word they must correspond a thing or the entity with in the person that has led all our thinking astray. But after so many discussions from the earlier centuries to up till now it can be said that the intelligence is an attribute of the behaviour and not all the attribute of a person.

Now after understanding this that the intelligence that can be even general intelligence is an attribute of the behaviour so it becomes very critical to get In to under standing the relationship between the physical health and the mental health. Very commonly in day to day life it is said that the children of very high I Q generally gain more rapidly in mental age than those with just the I Q or average I Q. Hence as a result of this it is very critical and also very important to get in to the in depth analysis of the measuring of the mental abilities of the different chronological ages. With this one will be able to get in to the understanding to the core.

It has been found in the recent past that these tests that are being conducted are not that easy and efficient to apply and also it can be said in other words it has been found that these tests are very difficult to apply as these have been found to possess various abilities that are not able to measure them due to the shortage of the time and also the type of the working conditions in which these type of the scenarios are found to occur and also the working conditions in which these type of the tests are carried out in order to measure this type of relationship between the physical and mental scenarios of the human race in to the existence from late centuries up till now in to the existence. Thus social scientist and also the various kinds of the persons who are working in the field of this measurement and also the evaluation and also involving the research workers are and have been trying there best to find a relation between the different types of the psychological methods to physiological or the physical parts of the body. Though much experimental evidences are not available to help all of us but some of them that are available are helping the scientists and also the research workers and all of them who are very keenly working on these parameters in order to find out the relationship of some of the parts of the body to the present mental capacities and also to the mental abilities of an individual.

Now after taking in to consideration all of these, it becomes very critical to under stand that why there is need to under stand this and why it is necessary to have an in depth study of under standing this relationship. Only Research is not at all sufficient and also not at all conclusive in supporting the relation ship between the mental side of the body as there are some of the positive co relations whose measurement comes out to be very low or in other words it can be said that these are found to be as the label of the in significant. Hence it has been observed that these results that are obtained are equivocal also are found to be as the contradictory in the nature. In this type of the research work it has be found that the results obtained include very few of them as the report with the negative correlation. Hence as a result of these observations it has been found that there is an urgent need of conducting the extended research in this area of great concern which in the long run will certainly help the education to proceed on a more defensible scientific basis.

Now in such a scenario that has been created it has been found that the points of the view in the objective test are very expensive and also lengthy and also complex and also very difficult in the nature as these require laboratories and that also sound proof and also air conditioned and the equipment used in such scenarios are very expensive as compared to the other types of tests that are generally conducted. And also at the last but not the least, very competent research psychologists who are very trained in the experimental research and learning theory are required and hence finally all this helps a great amount in increasing the over all expenses of the project. So now here it is very necessary to under stand that there is a great need to co relate the psychological factors wit the easily measured factors that include mainly the height, the weight, the chest measurement and also mainly all the other parts of the body. In the western culture it has been found out that the various types of the studies that have been conducted from the late centuries to up till now have greatly shown a very positive and a very high co relation of the intelligence and the socio economic status but in India, it has been possible for a very few of the researchers and the scientists to find a very positive relation between the intelligence and the socio economic status of the individuals of the human race. More and more of the studies are required in India than in the western culture but very few steps are being taken in India in this very critical and very important parameter. And the main reason for India lagging behind is the society In India is from beginning divided in to the higher and the lower cadres as a result of which the social environment in India is sharply divided among different types of the occupations and the castes and the intellectual attainment and also the home environment.

Socio economic status contributes much to the intelligence and as a result of this there comes a high demand and urgency to find out the relation ship between the intelligence and the socio economic status and the factors that affect intelligence or the variables that are having no affect on the intelligence or the variables that are found to have no type of affect on the level of the intelligence. Practically it has been found that the human knowledge can be found in the books and also the libraries but un like other animals human beings must start a new lesson with each generation that comes in to the existence as the man builds up on the accumulated and the recorded knowledge of the past and this all was very nicely explained by the then John W Best. History reveals it self that a man in maximum of the cases seeks help and guidance from his ancestors as history shows that the human being always in maximum number of the cases learns from his or her experiences so before laying emphasis on the said information it has become very necessary to under stand or to explore the field of the related studies as how much creative be the mind of the researchers it always become possible to explain the all the researches that have been done in the concerned field or in the other allied fields as it always helps the scientists and the research workers to avoid many of the pit falls and also it contributes in the broadening her or his vision with regard to the present problems of the research. Also it helps in preventing the duplication and this in turn helps in saving the time and the energy and also the money. Keeping these facts in to the mind it is very important that the investigator or the research worker or the scientist tries to make a survey of the related literature in the field and also makes a very honest and every possible effort to find out the related studies in this field.

A large number of the researchers have conducted a large number of the researches to find out that how the intelligence is related to the physical measures that as a whole includes the height, the weight, the chest measurement and at the last but not at all the least the most important factor the socio economic status. Now after under standing this fact that there is and why there is a need to under stand this socio economic relationship, it brings us to such a phase that revolves around the type of studies that are being conducted. Now comes the studies that are being conducted abroad.

In the beginning the first person or the research worker or the scientist was the Gal ton in 1883. He played a very critical and also a very vital role in under standing the socio economic relationship and also after him to help others and act as guidance for others to carry on with the research work. Galton was the one who very firmly believed in the fact that the tests of the sensory discrimination that could well in turn serve as the means of gauging a persons intellectual abilities. According to Galton, the only information that is able to reach the required persons including me concerning all the out ward events appear to pass through the avenue of our senses and the more perceptive the senses are of difference, the larger is the field up on which are the judgement and the intelligence can act there. Gal ton put a large amount of the stress on the study involving around the intelligence related to the human skill. After Galton came another research worker who was known as the Gowin. According to Gowin the most and the more successful men in the several occupational fields were taller than the less successful persons. After Gowin came another scientist or the research worker who was known as the Terman. In 1921 Terman was the one to explain the fact that the health of an individual and the physique of an individual are having a very strong relation and it is very important to under stand the relation between these two critical and vital parameters. According to Terman he selected 1528 children and out of these 1528 children, 857 were boys and the remaining 671 were girls. Terman summarised the studies conducted by him as the fact that the physique and the health measurements indicated that the very bright children were a little taller and also a few pounds heavier and also were better developed physically than the un selected children of there ages who were comparatively shorter and also were lighter than the selected children of there ages. A very important that must be noted here is that this not at all means that the gifted children were under developed physically but the point that reflects here out of the study and its observations Is that the typically gifted children were better physically developed than the child with the average mental capacity.

All these observations made by these scientists or the research workers played a very critical and also a very vital role in taking up the research work further and also helping the following relationships and also the generations to carry on the research work further. After all these research workers or the scientists came another research worker known as the holing worth who was the one who conducted study on the neuron muscular capacity of the children and the main thing he did was the study conducted by him in new York in an opportunity class group and the main thing that he revealed was that the gifted children were weighing 7 pounds more than the children who were in the experimental group. His studies were of great importance and his studies were followed by the studies in this regard conducted by the Fiske in 1942. Fiske was the one who used preparatory school boys as the subject and his main aim was to find a suitable relationship between the various and almost all the psychological measures and the body build. Intelligence here was considered and was measured by the process which included measuring by the three group tests called as the modified alpha and the ACE psychological examinations and a vocabulary tests and the one test that was involved here was of the creative intellectual functioning and the scholastic achievements. The things or the results or the conclusions that came out of these researches were very shocking and tend to move in the other direction. These results or the conclusions included that the intelligence was not significantly associated with the other factors which were measured. But in these studies many thing that were critical came out but this research was not at all able to find out or was not able to prove the hypotheses that was generally formed on the basis of the findings of the Kretschmer who was also one of the research worker. Following this more research was carried down the lane by a large no of the research workers and one of them was the Himmelweit. He conducted a large amount of the experiments and in one of his experiments carried out by him in this type of the regard he found out that the eurymorphy type of the individuals had a very high amount of the intelligence quotient as compared to that of the leptomorph who were found to be having very low amount of the intelligent quotient.

A large amount of the researches and the studies were conducted abroad but along with these all large amount of work in this regard was being carried out in India too. Gupta in 1968 was the one who carried out the study on the academically bright students as a group and he observed that the children had the tendency to be above average in height as compared to the comparatively less bright children. In 1963, Mathur was the one who was also busy in conducting such studies and his study involved the study of the socio economic status of the behaviour and also the achievement of the secondary school students. According to the Mathur socio economic status id significantly co related to the educational achievement and also to the intelligence and also to the conduct of the students. Further investigation was made in this regard about the relationship between the stature and the intelligence that was carried out by Mr Lal Singh and according to him the co efficient of the co relation between the stature and the intelligence was positive .11 only. The conclusion that can be brought out from this study can be summarized as that there is a very close relation ship between the intelligence and the physical measures and the physique. In all the researches that have been conducted whether in India or abroad it has been observed that the results have not been the same and hence as a result of the results achieved there is a great confusion on the facts about the relation ship of the physical aspects and the level of the intelligence and at different levels and at different conditions results obtained are varying.

This article has been written by KJ Singh a MBA Graduate from a prestigious Business School In India
Article Published:September 14, 2017
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