Briefly explain the Principles of Planning?Posted in Principles of Management | Email This Post
There are several basic principles that have been devised in order to guide the managers when they are engaged in the process of planning. Some of these principles are:-
1. Contribution to objectives: The plans are made for the purpose of achieving the organizational goals. In this way, both the major as well as the derivative plans are made with a view to contribute in the achievement of organizational goals. It can also be said that the process of planning has to be used by the managers as a tool to achieve their goals.
2. Primacy of Planning: according to this principle, the process of planning is the primary function of all the managers. The managers are required to plan all their actions and then they should proceed with other functions. The other functions of the management should be organized in such a way that the objectives decided by planning can be achieved.
3. Planning Premises: for the purpose of making the process of planning effective, there are certain presumptions or premises that have to be made and the planning is undertaken on the basis of these premises. Generally, it has been seen that the plans are not properly structured. The reason behind such a situation is that the premises are not developed properly. Therefore, this principle of planning requires that the situation should be analyzed properly by the managers that may develop in the future.
4. Principle of Alternatives: the process of planning involves the development of several alternatives and then the planners select the alternative that is most appropriate for achieving the organizational goals. On the other hand, if different alternatives are not developed, it becomes difficult for the planners to execute the process of planning properly.
5. Principle of timing: the plans have the capability of contributing significantly in the achievements of the organizational goals if the plans are properly timed. Therefore the planning premises as well as the policies are not much helpful if the plans are not properly timed.
6. Principle of flexibility: according to this principle, there should be flexibility in the plans. This is very important because flexibility allows the plans to deal with the contingencies that may develop later on. Therefore, the plans should be adjustable so that they can deal with the changes that may develop after the plans have been formulated. However, there are certain dangers associated with flexibility in plans. The managers should be aware of the fact that the changes may also upset the commitments made earlier. Therefore the managers have to compare the cost of making changes against the benefits provided by flexibility.
7. Principle of comparative strategies: this requires that while formulating their plans, the managers should also consider the plans made by their competitors. In this way, the managers should formulate their plans by considering what the competition would have done in such a case.
8. Principle of commitment: according to this principle, a time frame should be provided by the plan during which the commitments made in the plan have to be fulfilled. This commitment allows the managers to achieve the targets in time.